Landscape genomics analysis of Achyranthes bidentata reveal adaptive genetic variations are driven by environmental variations relating to ecological habit
- 189 Downloads
Knowledge on adaptive genetic variation in response to environmental variation is the key to understanding the adaptive evolution potential of species. China’s warm-temperate zone is an important climatic zone, but only a few landscape genomics studies have been conducted to understand the adaptive evolution of regional vegetation. In this study, natural populations of Achyranthes bidentata Blume were sampled in China’s warm-temperate zone to infer its adaptive evolution using landscape genomics methods. Four SCoT primers were used to investigate the adaptive evolution of A. bidentata in response to environmental variation across the warm-temperate zone of China. A total of 126 individuals from fifteen natural populations were successfully scored, and 202 unambiguous fragments were obtained. Twenty-three outlier loci were identified, eighteen outlier loci were significantly associated with environmental variables. Redundancy analytical results suggested that four environmental variables related to temperature and precipitation remarkably influenced the distribution of loci. The results provide empirical evidence that molecular markers with bias toward candidate functional genes might be suitable for landscape genomics studies. Temperature and precipitation jointly drive the adaptive evolution of A. bidentata. The key driving environmental factors identified in this study are mostly related to the ecological habit of A. bidentata. The species personality, i.e., ecological habit, seems to play an important role in the adaptive differentiation on A. bidentata.
KeywordsAdaptive genetic variation China’s warm-temperate zone Ecological habit Landscape genomics
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31770225), the Henan Agricultural University Science and Technology Innovation Fund (KJCX2016A2), the Funding Scheme of Young Backbone Teachers of Higher Education Institutions in Henan Province (2015GGJS-081), and the Key Scientific Research Projects of Henan Higher School (16A220002).
Compliance with ethical standards
No specific permits were required for A. bidentata, all samples were collected by researchers following current Chinese regulations.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Felsenstein J (2004) PHYLIP version 3.63. Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
- Fu ZZ, Li YH, Zhang KM, Li Y (2014) Molecular data and ecological niche modeling reveal population dynamics of widespread shrub Forsythia suspensa (Oleaceae) in China’s warm-temperate zone in response to climate change during the Pleistocene. BMC Evol Biol 14:114CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Gray MM, St Amand P, Bello NM, Galliart MB, Knapp M, Garrett KA, Morgan TJ, Baer SG, Maricle BR, Akhunov ED, Johnson LC (2014) Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands’ environmental gradient. Mol Ecol 23:6011–6028CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hijmans R, Guarino L, Mathur P, Jarvis A (2011) DIVA-GIS: geographic information system for biodiversity research. http://www.diva-gis.org. Accessed Dec 2011
- Li JT (2008) Studies on the correlation between the structural development of Achyranthes bidentata BL. and the accumulation of major medicinal components together with its forming of genuineness. Dissertation, Northwest UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Miao CY, Yang J, Mao RL, Li Y (2017) Phylogeography of Achyranthes bidentata (Amaranthaceae) in China’s warm-temperate zone inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA: insights into population dynamics in response to climate change during the Pleistocene. Plant Mol Biol Rep 35:166–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- ter Braak CJF, Smilauer P (2002) CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows user’s guide: software for canonical community ordination (version 4.5). Microcomputer Power, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Yeh FC, Yang R, Boyle TJ, Xiyan JM (2000) PopGene 32. Microsoft Window-based freeware for population genetic analysis, version 1.32. University of Alberta, EdmontonGoogle Scholar