Population Ecology

, Volume 59, Issue 4, pp 343–354 | Cite as

Annual variability in acorn production and pre-dispersal damage to acorns of four fagaceous species in two adjacent forest stands with different mixed ratios in western Japan

  • Kimiko Hirayama
  • Tatsuo Imai
  • Kosaku Enomoto
  • Chieri Tachikawa
Original article


We investigated the relationships between the annual variation in acorn production and pre-dispersal insect damage to acorns for 6 years in co-occurring fagaceous species (Quercus variabilis, Q. serrata, Q. glauca, and Castanopsis cuspidata) in two adjacent forest stands that had different mixed ratios due to succession: a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (DB), and an evergreen broad-leaved forest stand (EB). In C. cuspidata, the annual number of sound acorns correlated with that of female flowers. In contrast, for three Quercus species, the annual variability in sound acorn production was not correlated with that in female flowers, but was affected by the annual fluctuation in the percentage of insect damage in both the stands. For the three Quercus species, the dominant types of insect damage were different among the species, but similar between the two stands: damaged by moth larvae in Q. variabilis, and sap suction by adult weevils in Q. serrata and Q. glauca. Key factor analyses showed that the contribution of the dominant type of insect damage was similar between the two stands for the reproductive loss in Q. variabilis, but was different between the stands in Q. serrata and Q. glauca. Different mixed ratios of fagaceous species might affect the annual variability in sound acorn production via changes in the impact of a particular type of insect damage, even between adjacent stands.


Fagaceae Key factor analysis Negative density-dependent Pre-dispersal predation Warm-temperate forest 



We thank the staff of the Midori-Seisaku-Suishin Office of Kyoto City for their permission to use the forest at Takaragaike Hill for our study. We also thank Dr. Hikaru Takahara for kind advice on our study, Dr. Yu Yoshiyasu, Dr. Noriyuki Teramoto and Dr. Yoshitsugu Nasu for identifying seed-insects belonging to Lepidoptera, the members of the laboratory for research assistance and fruitful discussions about the study, and Saori Mizuno and Fumiko Wada for their help with the laboratory work. We are indebted to the Handling editor and three reviewers for valuable suggestion on our manuscript. This study was partially supported by Grand-in-Aid for Young Scientists (Start-up) (no. 21880042) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10144_2017_595_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (10 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 9 KB)


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Copyright information

© The Society of Population Ecology and Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kimiko Hirayama
    • 1
  • Tatsuo Imai
    • 1
  • Kosaku Enomoto
    • 2
  • Chieri Tachikawa
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesKyoto Prefectural UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Life and Environmental SciencesKyoto Prefectural UniversityKyotoJapan

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