Population Ecology

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 63–80 | Cite as

Sampling inspection to prevent the invasion of alien pests: statistical theory of import plant quarantine systems in Japan

  • Kohji YamamuraEmail author
  • Hajime Katsumata
  • Junji Yoshioka
  • Tatsuya Yuda
  • Kenji Kasugai
Original article


The establishment of appropriate import quarantine systems is the best known method for preventing the unintentional introduction of invasive alien pests. However, quarantine systems are sometimes judged as non-tariff barriers against trade by the World Trade Organization. The construction of a common scientific theory for quarantine systems is thus extremely important to prevent invasion without causing international conflict. We explain several statistical theories that have been adopted in import plant quarantine systems in Japan. Quarantine systems include three major components: (1) import sampling inspection, (2) early detection procedures, and (3) emergency control. We first explain the principle of risk management that was commonly adopted in these components. Then, we explain the method for calculating the required sample size in the import sampling inspection. We then explain hierarchical sampling inspection for detecting alien pests inside Japan. We further explain the theory for declaring the eradication of invasive alien pests as an emergency control. Actual examples of quarantine actions against the invasion of plum pox virus disease and citrus huanglongbing are discussed.


Citrus huanglongbing Early detection Emergency control Plum pox virus Risk management Sample size 



We would like to thank the anonymous referees for the comments that greatly helped to improve the manuscript. This work was supported in part by the program for Developing Practical Technologies for Promoting Innovative AFF Policy (No. 22015) from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.


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Copyright information

© The Society of Population Ecology and Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kohji Yamamura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hajime Katsumata
    • 2
  • Junji Yoshioka
    • 3
  • Tatsuya Yuda
    • 4
  • Kenji Kasugai
    • 5
  1. 1.National Institute for Agro-Environmental SciencesTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Yokohama Plant Protection StationYokohamaJapan
  3. 3.Moji Plant Protection StationKitakyushuJapan
  4. 4.Kagoshima Prefectural Plant Protection OfficeMinamisatsumaJapan
  5. 5.Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesTokyoJapan

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