Genetic population structure of the paper wasp Polistes olivaceus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Bangladesh
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- Uddin, M.M. & Tsuchida, K. Popul Ecol (2012) 54: 103. doi:10.1007/s10144-011-0290-5
Dispersal triggers gene flow, which in turn strongly affects the ensuing genetic population structure of a species. Using nuclear microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), we estimated the genetic population structure of the wasp Polistes olivaceus throughout Bangladesh. The level of population differentiation using nuclear markers (FST) appeared to be much lower than that estimated using mtDNA haplotype sequences (ФST), even after correcting for effective population size differences between the two markers. These results suggest a philopatric tendency, in which gynes disperse less than males. We observed no isolation by distance among the study populations at either the nuclear or mtDNA level, suggesting nonequilibrium between gene flow and drift as a result of very frequent interpopulation movement. For the nuclear markers, an individual assignment test showed no genetically and geographically distinct groups. Instead, phylogenetic analyses as well as a minimum spanning network using mtDNA haplotypes consistently revealed two distinct lineages. The distribution of haplotypes indicated western populations with a single lineage and offered clear evidence for restricted gene flow across the Jamuna–Padma–Upper Meghna river system. Mismatch distributions exhibited a unimodal distribution, which along with a starlike haplotype network, suggested a population expansion in lineage I but not in lineage II. Overall, these results suggest that gene flow among populations of P. olivaceus was affected by both female philopatry and a major river system across Bangladesh.