Population Ecology

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 337–345 | Cite as

Species versus genotypic diversity of a nitrogen-fixing plant functional group in a metacommunity

Original Article

Abstract

Exploring species and genetic diversity interactions provides new opportunities for furthering our understanding of the ecology and evolution of population and community dynamics, and for predicting responses of ecosystems to environmental change. Theory predicts that species diversity within communities and genetic diversity within populations will covary positively, because either species and genetic diversity interact synergistically or they respond in parallel fashion to common habitat conditions. We tested the hypothesis of positive covariation between species and genotypic diversity in a metacommunity of the species-rich southwest Australian flora. We hypothesised that the connection between genotypic diversity and species diversity is strong within functional groups, but weak or non-existent if the species considered extend beyond the functional group. We show that allelic richness of Daviesia triflora, an ant-dispersed pea, covaries positively with the species richness of six co-occurring nitrogen-fixing legume species. No pattern can be detected between allelic richness of D. triflora and species richness of ant-dispersed species when four non-legumes are added. We also show that genetic diversity of D. triflora is not governed by the same environmental factors that determine the presence of a group of large-shrub/small-tree species in the same metacommunity. This study shows that species and genetic diversity covariation are more likely to be confined to within, rather than between, plant functional groups.

Keywords

Functional group Legume Microsatellite Metacommunity South-West Australian Floristic Region 

References

  1. Antonovics J (1976) The input from population genetics: “the new ecological genetics”. Syst Bot 1:233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bever JD (2003) Soil community feedback and the coexistence of competitors: conceptual frameworks and empirical tests. New Phytol 157:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Booth RE, Grime JP (2003) Effects of genetic impoverishment on plant community diversity. J Ecol 91:721–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Calviño-Cancela M, He T, Lamont BB (2008) Distribution of myrmecochorous species over the landscape and their potential long-distance dispersal by emus and kangaroos. Divers Distrib 14:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cleary DFR, Fauvelot C, Genner MJ, Menken SBJ, Mooers AO (2006) Parallel responses of species and genetic diversity to El Nino Southern Oscillation-induced environmental destruction. Ecol Lett 9:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Condit R, Hubbell SP, Foster RB (1996) Changes in tree species abundance in a neotropical forest: impact of climate change. J Trop Ecol 12:231–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crisp MD (1995) Contribution towards a revision of Daviesia (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae). III. A synopsis of the genus. Aust Syst Bot 8:1155–1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Enright NJ, Mosner E, Miller BP, Johnson N, Lamont BB (2007) Patterns of soil versus canopy seed storage and plant species coexistence in species-rich shrublands of southwestern Australia. Ecology 88:229–2304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Etienne RS (2005) A new sampling formula for neutral biodiversity. Ecol Lett 8:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fridley JD, Stachowicz JJ, Naeem S, Sax DF, Seabloom EW, Smith MD, Stohlgren TJ, Tilman D, Von Holle B (2007) The invasion paradox: reconciling pattern and process in species invasions. Ecology 88:3–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gotelli NJ, Colwell RK (2001) Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecol Lett 4:379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. He T, Lamont BB (2009) High microsatellite genetic diversity fails to predict greater population resistance to extreme drought. Conserv Genet. doi:10.1007/s10592-009-9971-4
  13. He T, Krauss SL, Lamont BB, Miller BP, Enright NJ (2004) Long distance dispersal in a metapopulation of Banksia hookeriana inferred by population allocation from AFLP data. Mol Ecol 13:1099–1109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. He T, Lamont BB, Krauss SL, Enright NJ, Miller BP (2008a) Covariation between intraspecific genetic diversity and species diversity within a plant functional group. J Ecol 96:956–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. He T, Krauss SL, Lamont BB (2008b) Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for Daviesia triflora (Papilionaceae). Mol Ecol Resour 8:1475–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hnatiuk RJ, Hopkins AJM (1981) An ecological analysis of kwongan vegetation south of Eneabba, Western Australia. Aust J Ecol 6:423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hopper S, Gioia P (2004) The southwest Australia floristic region: evolution and conservation of a global hotspot of biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:623–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Houston TF (2000) Native bees on wildflowers in Western Australia. A synopsis of bee visitation of wildflowers based on the bee collection of the Western Australian Museum. Special publication no. 2, Western Australian Insect Study Society, PerthGoogle Scholar
  19. Kalionwski ST (2005) HP-RARE 1.0: a computer program for performing rarefaction on measures of allelic richness. Mol Ecol Notes 5:187–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lamont BB (1982) Mechanisms for enhancing nutrient uptake in plants, with particular reference to Mediterranean South Africa and Western Australia. Bot Rev 48:597–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lamont BB (1995) Mineral nutrient relations in mediterranean regions of California, Chile and Australia. In: Arroya MT, Zedler PH, Fox MD (eds) Ecology and biogeography of mediterranean ecosystems in Chile, California and Australia. Springer, New York, pp 211–235Google Scholar
  22. Lamont BB, Downes S, Fox JED (1977) Importance-value curves and diversity indices applied to a species-rich heathland in Western Australia. Nature 265:438–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lamont BB, Enright NJ, Bergl SM (1989) Coexistence and competitive exclusion of Banksia hookeriana in the presence of congeneric seedlings along a topographic gradient. Oikos 56:39–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lankau RA (2008) A chemical trait creates a genetic trade-off between intra- and interspecific competitive ability. Ecology 89:1181–1187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lankau RA, Strauss SY (2007) Mutual feedbacks maintain genetic diversity and species diversity in a plant community. Science 317:1561–1563CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Law R (1985) Evolution in a mutualistic environment. In: Boucher DH (ed) The biology of mutualism: ecology and evolution. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 145–170Google Scholar
  27. Magurran AE (2005) Ecology: linking species diversity and genetic diversity. Curr Biol 15:R597–R599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Milewski AV, Bond WJ (1982) Convergence of myrmecochory in mediterranean Australia and South Africa. In: Buckley RC (ed) Ant-plant interactions in Australia. Junk, The Hague, pp 84–98Google Scholar
  29. Miller BP, Enright NJ, Lamont BB (2007) Range contraction, real and imagined, in Banksia hookeriana, a restricted endemic shrub of south-western Australia. Divers Distrib 13:406–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Molofski J, Bever JD (2002) A novel theory to explain species diversity in landscapes: positive frequency dependence and habitat suitability. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:2389–2393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Morin PJ (2003) Community ecology and the genetics of interacting species. Ecology 84:577–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:803–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Neuhauser C, Andow DA, Heimpel GE, May G, Shaw RG, Wagenius S (2003) Community genetics: expanding the synthesis of ecology and genetics. Ecology 84:545–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Orians GH, Paine RT (1983) Convergent evolution at the community level. In: Futuyma DJ, Slatkin M (eds) Coevolution. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp 431–458Google Scholar
  35. Parker MA, Spoerke JM (1998) Geographic structure of lineage associations in a plant-bacterial mutualism. J Evol Biol 11:549–562Google Scholar
  36. Pérez-Fernández MA, Lamont BB (2003) Nodulation and performance of Australian and Spanish legumes in Australian soils. Aust J Bot 51:543–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Chase MW, Mort ME, Albach DC, Zanis M, Savolainen V, Hahn WH, Hoot SB, Fay MF, Axtell M, Swensen SM, Prince LM, Kress WJ, Nixon KC, Farris JS (2000) Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S rDNA. rbcL, and atpB sequences. Bot J Linn Soc 133:381–461Google Scholar
  38. Sprent JI, de Faria SM (1988) Mechanisms of infection of plants by nitrogen fixing organisms. Plant Soil 110:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vellend M (2005) Species diversity and genetic diversity: parallel process and correlated patterns. Am Nat 166:199–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Vellend M (2008) Effects of diversity on diversity: consequences of competition and facilitation. Oikos 117:1075–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vellend M, Geber MA (2005) Connections between species diversity and genetic diversity. Ecol Lett 8:767–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Voigt W, Perner J, Jones TH (2007) Using functional groups to investigate community response to environmental changes: two grassland case studies. Glob Chang Biol 13:1710–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Whitham TG, Young WP, Martinsen GD, Gehring CA, Schweitzer JA, Shuster SM, Wimp GM, Fischer DG, Bailey JK, Lindroth RL, Woolbright S, Kuske CR (2003) Community and ecosystem genetics: a consequence of the extended phenotype. Ecology 84:559–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Whitlock RAJ, Grime JP, Booth R, Burke T (2007) The role of genotypic diversity in determining grassland community structure under constant environmental conditions. J Ecol 95:895–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wilmers CC (2007) Understanding ecosystem robustness. Trends Ecol Evol 22:504–506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Population Ecology and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Ecosystem Diversity and Dynamics, Department of Environmental and Aquatic SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Kings Park and Botanic GardenBotanic Gardens and Parks AuthorityWest PerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations