Population Ecology

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 355–372 | Cite as

Dangerously few liaisons: a review of mate-finding Allee effects

  • Joanna Gascoigne
  • Ludek Berec
  • Stephen Gregory
  • Franck Courchamp
Special Feature: Review Allee Effects: Mating and Invasion

Abstract

In this paper, we review mate-finding Allee effects from ecological and evolutionary points of view. We define ‘mate-finding’ as mate searching in mobile animals, and also as the meeting of gametes for sessile animals and plants (pollination). We consider related issues such as mate quality and choice, sperm limitation and physiological stimulation of reproduction by conspecifics, as well as discussing the role of demographic stochasticity in generating mate-finding Allee effects. We consider the role of component Allee effects due to mate-finding in generating demographic Allee effects (at the population level). Compelling evidence for demographic Allee effects due to mate-finding (as well as via other mechanisms) is still limited, due to difficulties in censusing rare populations or a failure to identify underlying mechanisms, but also because of fitness trade-offs, population spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics, and because the strength of component Allee effects may vary in time and space. Mate-finding Allee effects act on individual fitness and are thus susceptible to change via natural selection. We believe it is useful to distinguish two routes by which evolution can act to mitigate mate-finding Allee effects. The first is evolution of characteristics such as calls, pheromones, hermaphroditism, etc. which make mate-finding more efficient at low density, thus eliminating the Allee effect. Such adaptations are very abundant in the natural world, and may have arisen to avoid Allee effects, although other hypotheses are also possible. The second route is to avoid low density via adaptations such as permanent or periodic aggregation. In this case, the Allee effect is still present, but its effects are avoided. These two strategies may have different consequences in a world where many populations are being artificially reduced to low density: in the first case, population growth rate can be maintained, while in the second case, the mechanism to avoid Allee effects has been destroyed. It is therefore in these latter populations that we predict the greatest evidence for mate-finding Allee effects and associated demographic consequences. This idea is supported by the existing empirical evidence for demographic Allee effects. Given a strong effect that mate-finding appears to have on individual fitness, we support the continuing quest to find connections between component mate-finding Allee effects (individual reproductive fitness) and the demographic consequences. There are many reasons why such studies are difficult, but it is important, particularly given the increasing number of populations and species of conservation concern, that the ecological community understands more about how widespread demographic Allee effects really are, and why.

Keywords

Component Allee effect Demographic Allee effect Positive density dependence Mate search 

References

  1. Agren J (1996) Population size, pollinator limitation and seed set in the self-incompatible herb Lythrum salicaria. Ecology 77:1779–1790. doi:10.2307/2265783 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allee WC (1941) Animal aggregations, a study in general sociology. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  3. Allee WC, Emerson O, Park T, Schmidt K (1949) Principles of animal ecology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Almeida RC, Delphim SA, da S. Costa MI (2006) A numerical model to solve single species invasion problems with Allee effects. Ecol Modell 192:601–617. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.07.018
  5. Amarasekare P (1998) Allee effects in metapopulation dynamics. Am Nat 152:298–302. doi:10.1086/286169 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angulo E, Roemer GW, Berec L, Gascoigne J, Courchamp F (2007) Double Allee effects and extinction in the island fox. Conserv Biol 21:1082–1091. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00721.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Appeldoorn RS (1988) Fishing pressure and reproductive potential in strombid conchs: is there a critical stock density for reproduction? Mem Soc Cienc Nat La Salle 48:275–288Google Scholar
  8. Ashman TL, Knight TM, Steets JA, Amarasekare P, Burd M, Campbell DR, Dudash MR, Johnston MO, Mazer SJ, Mitchell RJ, Morgan MT, Wilson WG (2004) Pollen limitation of plant reproduction: ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences. Ecology 85:2408–2421. doi:10.1890/03-8024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Babcock R, Keesing J (1999) Fertilisation biology of the abalone Haliotis laevigata: laboratory and field studies. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:1668–1678. doi:10.1139/cjfas-56-9-1668 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Babcock RC, Mundy CN, Whitehead D (1994) Sperm diffusion models and in situ confirmation of long-distance fertilization in the free-spawning asteroid Acanthaster planci. Biol Bull 186:17–28. doi:10.2307/1542033 Woods HoleCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrowman NJ, Myers RA, Hilborn R, Kehler DG, Field CA (2003) The variability among populations of coho salmon in the maximum reproductive rate and depensation. Ecol Appl 13:784–793. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0784:TVAPOC]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becheikh S, Michaud M, Thomas F, Raibaut A, Renaud F (1998) Roles of resource and partner availability in sex determination in a parasitic copepod. Proc R Soc Lond B 265:1153–1156. doi:10.1098/rspb.1998.0411 Google Scholar
  13. Berec L, Boukal DS (2004) Implications of mate search, mate choice and divorce rate for population dynamics of sexually reproducing species. Oikos 104:122–132. doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12753.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berec L, Boukal DS, Berec M (2001) Linking the Allee effect, sexual reproduction, and temperature-dependent sex determination via spatial dynamics. Am Nat 157:217–230. doi:10.1086/318626 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berec L, Schembri PJ, Boukal DS (2005) Sex determination in Bonellia viridis (Echiura: Bonelliidae): population dynamics and evolution. Oikos 108:473–484. doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13350.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berec L, Angulo E, Courchamp F (2007) Multiple Allee effects and population management. Trends Ecol Evol 22:185–191. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2006.12.002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berg CJ, Olsen D (1989) Conservation and management of queen conch (Strombus gigas) fisheries in the Caribbean. In: Caddy JF (ed) Marine invertebrate fisheries: their assessment and management. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Berggren A (2001) Colonization success in Roesel’s bush-cricket Metrioptera roeseli: the effects of propagule size. Ecology 82:274–280Google Scholar
  19. Berglund A (1991) Egg competition in a sex-role reversed pipefish—subdominant females trade reproduction for growth. Evol Int J Org Evol 45:770–774. doi:10.2307/2409928 Google Scholar
  20. Berryman AA (2002) Population regulation, emergent properties, and a requiem for density dependence. Oikos 99:600–606. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.12106.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Berryman AA (2003) On principles, laws and theory in population ecology. Oikos 103:695–701. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12810.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bessa-Gomes C, Legendre S, Clobert J (2004) Allee effects, mating systems and the extinction risk in populations with two sexes. Ecol Lett 7:802–812. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00632.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brook B (2008) The allure of the few. PLoS Biol 6:e127. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brook BW, Bradshaw CJA (2006) Strength of evidence for density dependence in abundance time series of 1198 species. Ecology 87:1445–1451. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[1445:SOEFDD]2.0.CO;2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Calabrese JM, Fagan WF (2004) Lost in time, lonely, and single: reproductive asynchrony and the Allee effect. Am Nat 164:25–37. doi:10.1086/421443 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cappuccino N (2004) Allee effect in an invasive alien plant, pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Asclepiadaceae). Oikos 106:3–8. doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12863.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carver AM, Wolcott TG, Wolcott DL, Hines AH (2005) Unnatural selection: effects of a male focused size-selective fishery on reproductive potential of a blue crab population. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 319:29–41. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2004.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cheptou PO (2004) Allee effect and self-fertilization in hermaphrodites: reproductive assurance in demographically stable populations. Evol Int J Org Evol 58:2613–2621Google Scholar
  29. Cole CJ (1984) Unisexual lizards. Sci Am 250:94–100Google Scholar
  30. Courchamp F, Clutton Brock T, Grenfell B (1999) Inverse density dependence and the Allee effect. Trends Ecol Evol 14:405–410. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01683-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Courchamp F, Clutton Brock T, Grenfell B (2000) Multipack dynamics and the Allee effect in the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus. Anim Conserv 3:277–285. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2000.tb00113.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Courchamp F, Berec L, Gascoigne J (2008) Allee effects in ecology and conservation. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crews D, Grassman M, Lindzey J (1986) Behavioral facilitation of reproduction in sexual and unisexual Whiptail lizards. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:9547–9550. doi:10.1073/pnas.83.24.9547 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Davis HG, Taylor CM, Lambrinos JG, Strong DR (2004) Pollen limitation causes an Allee effect in a wind-pollinated invasive grass (Spartina alterniflora). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:13804–13807. doi:10.1073/pnas.0405230101 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Demauro MM (1993) Relationship of breeding system to rarity in the Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys-acaulis var glabra). Conserv Biol 7:542–550. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.07030542.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dennis B (1989) Allee effects: population growth, critical density and the chance of extinction. Nat Resour Model 3:481–538Google Scholar
  37. Dobson AP, Lyles AM (1989) The population-dynamics and conservation of primate populations. Conserv Biol 3:362–380. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.1989.tb00242.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dubois F, Cezilly F, Pagel M (1998) Mate fidelity and coloniality in waterbirds: a comparative analysis. Oecologia 116:433–440. doi:10.1007/s004420050607 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eckert CG (2002) The loss of sex in clonal plants. Evol Ecol 15:501–520. doi:10.1023/A:1016005519651 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ehrlen J (1992) Proximate limits to seed production in a herbaceous perennial legume, Lathyrus-vernus. Ecology 73:1820–1831. doi:10.2307/1940033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ehrlen J, Eriksson O (1995) Pollen limitation and population-growth in a herbaceous perennial legume. Ecology 76:652–656. doi:10.2307/1941223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Elam DR, Ridley CE, Goodell K, Ellstrandt NC (2007) Population size and relatedness affect fitness of a self-incompatible invasive plant. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:549–552. doi:10.1073/pnas.0607306104 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Elliott GP, Merton DV, Jansen PW (2001) Intensive management of a critically endangered species: the kakapo. Biol Conserv 99:121–133. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00191-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Engen S, Lande R, Sæther BE (2003) Demographic stochasticity and Allee effects in populations’ with two sexes. Ecology 84:2378–2386. doi:10.1890/02-0123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Evans JP, Magurran AE (2000) Multiple benefits of multiple mating in guppies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:10074–10076. doi:10.1073/pnas.180207297 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ewing H (1943) Continued fertility in female Box turtles following mating. Copeia 1943:112–114. doi:10.2307/1437776 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fausto JA, Eckhart VM, Geber MA (2001) Reproductive assurance and the evolutionary ecology of self-pollination in Clarkia xantiana (Onagraceae). Am J Bot 88:1794–1800. doi:10.2307/3558355 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Forsyth S (2003) Density-dependent seed set in the Haleakala silversword: evidence for an Allee effect. Oecologia 136:551–557. doi:10.1007/s00442-003-1295-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fowler C, Baker J (1991) A review of animal population dynamics at extremely reduced population levels. Rep Int Whaling Comm 41:545–554Google Scholar
  50. Garcia-Gonzalez F, Gomendio M (2003) Oviposition site selection and oviposition stimulation by conspecifics in the golden egg bug (Phyllomorpha laciniata): implications for female fitness. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 53:385–392Google Scholar
  51. Garrett KA, Bowden RL (2002) An Allee effect reduces the invasive potential of Tilletia indica. Phytopathology 92:1152–1159. doi:10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.11.1152 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gascoigne J, Lipcius RN (2004a) Allee effects in marine systems. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 269:49–59. doi:10.3354/meps269049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gascoigne J, Lipcius RN (2004b) Conserving populations at low abundance: delayed functional maturity and Allee effects in reproductive behaviour of the queen conch Strombus gigas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 284:185–194. doi:10.3354/meps284185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Groom MJ (1998) Allee effects limit population viability of an annual plant. Am Nat 151:487–496. doi:10.1086/286135 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hackney EE, McGraw JB (2001) Experimental demonstration of an Allee effect in American ginseng. Conserv Biol 15:129–136. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.98546.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Haig D, Westoby M (1988) On limits to seed production. Am Nat 131:757–759. doi:10.1086/284817 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hearn GW, Berghaier RW, George DD (1996) Evidence for social enhancement of reproduction in two Eulemur species. Zoo Biol 15:1–12. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:1<1::AID-ZOO1>3.0.CO;2-F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Herlihy CR, Eckert CG (2002) Genetic cost of reproductive assurance in a self-fertilizing plant. Nature 416:320–323. doi:10.1038/416320a PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hines AH, Jivoff PR, Bushmann PJ, van Montfrans J, Reed SA, Wolcott DL, Wolcott TG (2003) Evidence for sperm limitation in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Bull Mar Sci 72:287–310Google Scholar
  60. Hissmann K (1990) Strategies of mate finding in the European field cricket (Gryllus campestris) at different population-densities—a field-study. Ecol Entomol 15:281–291. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1990.tb00810.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hopper KR, Roush RT (1993) Mate finding, dispersal, number released, and the success of biological-control introductions. Ecol Entomol 18:321–331. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1993.tb01108.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jabbour HN, Veldhuizen FA, Mulley RC, Asher GW (1994) Effect of exogenous gonadotropins on estrus, the Lh surge and the timing and rate of ovulation in red deer (Cervus-elaphus). J Reprod Fertil 100:533–539. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.1000533 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jackson AP (2004) Cophylogeny of the Ficus microcosm. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 79:751–768. doi:10.1017/S1464793104006463 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson DM, Liebhold AM, Tobin PC, Bjornstad ON (2006) Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth. Nature 444:361–363. doi:10.1038/nature05242 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jonsson M, Kindvall O, Jonsell M, Nordlander G (2003) Modelling mating success of saproxylic beetles in relation to search behaviour, population density and substrate abundance. Anim Behav 65:1069–1076. doi:10.1006/anbe.2003.2141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kindvall O, Vessby K, Berggren A, Hartman G (1998) Individual mobility prevents an Allee effect in sparse populations of the bush cricket Metrioptera roeseli: an experimental study. Oikos 81:449–457. doi:10.2307/3546766 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kiørboe T (2006) Sex, sex-ratios, and the dynamics of pelagic copepod populations. Oecologia 148:40–50. doi:10.1007/s00442-005-0346-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Klomp H, van Monfort MAJ, Tammes PML (1964) Sexual reproduction and underpopulation. Arch Neerl Zool 16:105–110Google Scholar
  69. Knapp EE, Goedde MA, Rice KJ (2001) Pollen-limited reproduction in blue oak: implications for wind pollination in fragmented populations. Oecologia 128:48–55. doi:10.1007/s004420000623 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Koenig WD, Ashley MV (2003) Is pollen limited? The answer is blowin’ in the wind. Trends Ecol Evol 18:157–159. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(03)00034-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kokko H, Mappes J (2005) Sexual selection when fertilization is not guaranteed. Evol Int J Org Evol 59:1876–1885Google Scholar
  72. Kokko H, Rankin DJ (2006) Lonely hearts or sex in the city? Density-dependent effects in mating systems. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 361:319–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kramer A, Sarnelle O, Knapp RA (2008) Allee effect limits colonization success of sexually reproducing zooplankton. Ecology 89:2760–2769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kuussaari M, Saccheri I, Camara M, Hanski I (1998) Allee effect and population dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly. Oikos 82:384–392. doi:10.2307/3546980 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lamont BB, Klinkhamer PGL, Witkowski ETF (1993) Population fragmentation may reduce fertility to zero in Banksia-goodii—a demonstration of the Allee effect. Oecologia 94:446–450. doi:10.1007/BF00317122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lande R (1993) Risks of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes. Am Nat 142:911–927. doi:10.1086/285580 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lande R (1998) Demographic stochasticity and Allee effect on a scale with isotropic noise. Oikos 83:353–358. doi:10.2307/3546849 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Larkin JL, Maehr DS, Cox JJ, Wichrowski MW, Crank RD (2002) Factors affecting reproduction and population growth in a restored elk Cervus elaphas nelsoni population. Wildl Biol 8:49–54Google Scholar
  79. Lehmann L, Perrin N (2003) Inbreeding avoidance through kin recognition: choosy female boost male dispersal. Am Nat 162:638–652. doi:10.1086/378823 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lennartsson T (2002) Extinction thresholds and disrupted plant–pollinator interactions in fragmented plant populations. Ecology 83:3060–3072Google Scholar
  81. Levitan DR (1991) Influence of body size and population-density on fertilization success and reproductive output in a free-spawning invertebrate. Biol Bull 181:261–268. doi:10.2307/1542097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Levitan DR (1998) Sperm limitation, sperm competition and sexual selection in external fertilizers. In: Birkhead TR, Møller AP (eds) Sperm competition and sexual selection. Academic Press, Burlington, pp 173–215Google Scholar
  83. Levitan DR (2002a) The relationship between conspecific fertilization success and reproductive isolation among three congeneric sea urchins. Evol Int J Org Evol 56:1599–1609Google Scholar
  84. Levitan DR (2002b) Density-dependent selection on gamete traits in three congeneric sea urchins. Ecology 83:464–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Levitan DR, McGovern T (2005) The Allee effect in the sea. In: Norse E, Crowder L (eds) Marine conservation biology: the science of maintaining the sea’s biodiversity. Island Press, Washington DC, pp 47–57Google Scholar
  86. Levitan DR, Sewell MA, Chia FS (1992) How distribution and abundance influence fertilisation success in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. Ecology 73:248–254. doi:10.2307/1938736 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Liebhold A, Bascompte J (2003) The Allee effect, stochastic dynamics and the eradication of alien species. Ecol Lett 6:133–140. doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00405.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Liermann M, Hilborn R (1997) Depensation in fish stocks: a hierarchic Bayesian meta-analysis. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:1976–1984. doi:10.1139/cjfas-54-9-1976 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Liermann M, Hilborn R (2001) Depensation: evidence, models and implications. Fish Fish 2:33–58. doi:10.1046/j.1467-2979.2001.00029.x Google Scholar
  90. Lloyd DG (1992) Self-fertilization and cross-fertilization in plants. 2. The selection of self fertilization. Int J Plant Sci 153:370–380. doi:10.1086/297041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. MacDiarmid AB, Butler MJ (1999) Sperm economy and limitation in spiny lobsters. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 46:14–24. doi:10.1007/s002650050587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Maia ACD, Schlindwein C (2006) Caladium bicolor (Araceae) and Cyclocephata celata (Coleoptera, Dynastinae): a well-established pollination system in the northern Atlantic rainforest of Pernambuco, Brazil. Plant Biol 8:529–534. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924045 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McCarthy MA (1997) The Allee effect, finding mates and theoretical models. Ecol Modell 103:99–102. doi:10.1016/S0304-3800(97)00104-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McComb K, Moss C, Durant SM, Baker L, Sayialel S (2001) Matriarchs as repositories of social knowledge in African elephants. Science 292:491–494. doi:10.1126/science.1057895 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McCreery EK, Robbins RL (2001) Proximate explanations for failed pack formation in Lycaon pictus. Behaviour 138:1467–1479. doi:10.1163/156853901317367708 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Miettinen M, Kaitala A, Smith RL, Ordonez RM (2006) Do egg carrying and protracted copulation affect mobility in the golden egg bug? J Insect Behav 19:171–178. doi:10.1007/s10905-006-9015-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Moeller DA, Geber MA (2005) Ecological context of the evolution of self-pollination in Clarkia xantiana: population size, plant communities, and reproductive assurance. Evol Int J Org Evol 59:786–799Google Scholar
  98. Møller AP, Legendre S (2001) Allee effect, sexual selection and demographic stochasticity. Oikos 92:27–34. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0706.2001.920104.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Møller AP, Thornhill R (1998) Male parental care, differential parental investment by females and sexual selection. Anim Behav 55:1507–1515. doi:10.1006/anbe.1998.0731 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moore DM, Lewis H (1965) The evolution of self-pollination in Clarkia xantiana. Evol Int J Org Evol 19:104–114. doi:10.2307/2406299 Google Scholar
  101. Morgan MT, Wilson WG, Knight TM (2005) Plant population dynamics, pollinator foraging, and the selection of self-fertilization. Am Nat 166:169–183. doi:10.1086/431317 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Muchhala N (2006) Nectar bat stows huge tongue in its rib cage. Nature 444:701–702. doi:10.1038/444701a PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Myers RA, Barrowman NJ, Hutchings JA, Rosenburg AA (1995) Population-dynamics of exploited fish stocks at low population-levels. Science 269:1106–1108. doi:10.1126/science.269.5227.1106 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nilsson SG, Wastljung U (1987) Seed predation and cross-pollination in mast-seeding beech (Fagus sylvatica) patches. Ecology 68:260–265. doi:10.2307/1939256 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pennington JT (1985) The ecology of fertilization of echinoid eggs: the consequences of sperm dilution, adult aggregation, and synchronous spawning. Biol Bull 169:417–430. doi:10.2307/1541492 Woods HoleCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Peterson C, Levitan D (2001) The Allee effect: a barrier to recovery by exploited species. In: Reynolds JD, Mace GM, Redford KH, Robinson JG (eds) Conservation of exploited species. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 281–300Google Scholar
  107. Philip JR (1957) Sociality and sparse populations. Ecology 38:107–111. doi:10.2307/1932132 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pichon G, Awono Ambene HP, Robert V (2000) High heterogeneity in the number of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the bloodmeal of mosquitoes fed on the same host. Parasitology 121:115–120. doi:10.1017/S0031182099006277 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ramsey M, Vaughton G (2000) Pollen quality limits seed set in Burchardia umbellata (Colchicaceae). Am J Bot 87:845–852. doi:10.2307/2656892 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ray M, Stoner AW (1994) Experimental-analysis of growth and survivorship in a marine gastropod aggregation—balancing growth with safety in numbers. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 105:47–59. doi:10.3354/meps105047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Reed DH (2005) Relationship between population size and fitness. Conserv Biol 19:563–568. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00444.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Richard F, Tarpy DR, Grozinger CM (2007) Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology. PLoS ONE 2:e980. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000980 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rowe S, Hutchings JA (2003) Mating systems and the conservation of commercially exploited marine fish. Trends Ecol Evol 18:567–572. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2003.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rowe S, Hutchings JA, Bekkevold D, Rakitin A (2004) Depensation, probability of fertilization, and the mating system of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES J Mar Sci 61:1144–1150. doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2004.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sadovy Y (2001) The threat of fishing to highly fecund fishes. J Fish Biol 59:90–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sæther BE, Ringsby TH, Roskaft E (1996) Life history variation, population processes and priorities in species conservation: towards a reunion of research paradigms. Oikos 77:217–226. doi:10.2307/3546060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sakai S (2002) A review of brood-site pollination mutualism: plants providing breeding sites for their pollinators. J Plant Res 115:161–168. doi:10.1007/s102650200021 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sarnelle O, Knapp RA (2004) Zooplankton recovery after fish removal: limitations of the egg bank. Limnol Oceanogr 49:1382–1392Google Scholar
  119. Shepherd SA, Brown LD (1993) What is an Abalone stock—implications for the role of refugia in conservation. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50:2001–2009. doi:10.1139/f93-224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sibly RM, Barker D, Denham MC, Hone J, Pagel M (2005) On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects. Science 309:607–610. doi:10.1126/science.1110760 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sih A, Baltus MS (1987) Patch size, pollinator behavior, and pollinator limitation in Catnip. Ecology 68:1679–1690. doi:10.2307/1939860 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Soldaat LL, Vetter B, Klotz S (1997) Sex ratio in populations of Silene otites in relation to vegetation cover, population size and fungal infection. J Veg Sci 8:697–702. doi:10.2307/3237374 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Stephens PA, Sutherland WJ (1999) Consequences of the Allee effect for behaviour, ecology and conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 14:401–405. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01684-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Stephens P, Sutherland W (2000) Vertebrate mating systems, Allee effects and conservation. In: Apollonio M, Festa-Bianchet M, Mainardi D (eds) Vertebrate mating systems. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, pp 186–213Google Scholar
  125. Stephens PA, Sutherland WJ, Freckleton RP (1999) What is the Allee effect? Oikos 87:185–190. doi:10.2307/3547011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Stephens PA, Frey Roos F, Arnold W, Sutherland WJ (2002) Model complexity and population predictions. The alpine marmot as a case study. J Anim Ecol 71:343–361. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2656.2002.00605.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stevens EF, Pickett C (1994) Managing the social environments of flamingos for reproductive success. Zoo Biol 13:501–507. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430130512 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stoner AW, Ray M (1993) Aggregation dynamics in juvenile Queen conch (Strombus-gigas)—population-structure, mortality, growth, and migration. Mar Biol (Berl) 116:571–582. doi:10.1007/BF00355476 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stoner AW, Ray-Culp M (2000) Evidence for Allee effects in an over-harvested marine gastropod: density-dependent mating and egg production. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 202:297–302. doi:10.3354/meps202297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Studer-Thiersch A (2000) What 19 years of observation on captive Greater flamingos suggests about adaptations to breeding under irregular conditions. Waterbirds 23:150–159. doi:10.2307/1522160 Google Scholar
  131. Sutherland WJ (2002) Conservation biology—science, sex and the kakapo. Nature 419:265–266. doi:10.1038/419265a PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Swain DP, Sinclair AF (2000) Pelagic fishes and the cod recruitment dilemma in the Northwest Atlantic. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:1321–1325. doi:10.1139/cjfas-57-7-1321 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Taylor CM, Hastings A (2005) Allee effects in biological invasions. Ecol Lett 8:895–908. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00787.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Taylor CM, Davis HG, Civille JC, Grevstad FS, Hastings A (2004) Consequences of an Allee effect in the invasion of a pacific estuary by Spartina alterniflora. Ecology 85:3254–3266. doi:10.1890/03-0640 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tcheslavskaia K, Brewster CC, Sharov AA (2002) Mating success of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) females in Southern Wisconsin. Great Lakes Entomol 35:1–7Google Scholar
  136. Thomas J, Benjamin M (1973) The effects of population density on growth and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say) (Gasteropoda: Pulmonata). J Anim Ecol 43:31–50. doi:10.2307/3156 Google Scholar
  137. Tobin PC, Whitmire SL, Johnson DM, Bjornstad ON, Liebhold AM (2007) Invasion speed is affected by geographical variation in the strength of Allee effects. Ecol Lett 10:36–43. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00991.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Tregenza T, Wedell N (1998) Benefits of multiple mates in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Evol Int J Org Evol 52:1726–1730. doi:10.2307/2411345 Google Scholar
  139. Vargas-Salinas F (2006) Breeding behavior and colonization success of the Cuban treefrog Osteopilus septentrionalis. Herpetologica 62:398–408. doi:10.1655/0018-0831(2006)62[398:BBACSO]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Veit RR, Lewis MA (1996) Dispersal, population growth, and the Allee effect: dynamics of the house finch invasion of eastern North America. Am Nat 148:255–274. doi:10.1086/285924 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vernon JG (1995) Low reproductive output of isolated, self-fertilizing snails—inbreeding depression or absence of social facilitation. Proc R Soc Lond B 259:131–136. doi:10.1098/rspb.1995.0020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wagenius S (2006) Scale dependence of reproductive failure in fragmented Echinacea populations. Ecology 87:931–941. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[931:SDORFI]2.0.CO;2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Walters C, Kitchell JF (2001) Cultivation/depensation effects on juvenile survival and recruitment: implications for the theory of fishing. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:39–50. doi:10.1139/cjfas-58-1-39 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Welch AM, Semlitsch RD, Gerhardt HC (1998) Call duration as an indicator of genetic quality in male gray tree frogs. Science 280:1928–1930. doi:10.1126/science.280.5371.1928 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wells H, Strauss EG, Rutter MA, Wells PH (1998) Mate location, population growth and species extinction. Biol Conserv 86:317–324. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00032-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Whitmire SL, Tobin PC (2006) Persistence of invading gypsy moth populations in the United States. Oecologia 147:230–237. doi:10.1007/s00442-005-0271-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Widen B (1993) Demographic and genetic effects on reproduction as related to population size in a rare perennial herb Senecio integrifolius (Asteraceae). Biol J Linn Soc Lond 50:179–195. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1993.tb00925.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wilcock C, Neiland R (2002) Pollination failure in plants: why it happens and when it matters. Trends Plant Sci 7:270–277. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(02)02258-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wilson WG, Harder LD (2003) Reproductive uncertainty and the relative competitiveness of simultaneous hermaphroditism versus dioecy. Am Nat 162:220–241. doi:10.1086/376584 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Population Ecology and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanna Gascoigne
    • 1
  • Ludek Berec
    • 2
  • Stephen Gregory
    • 3
  • Franck Courchamp
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Ocean SciencesUniversity of Wales BangorMenai BridgeUK
  2. 2.Department of Theoretical Ecology, Biology Centre ASCRInstitute of EntomologyCeske BudejoviceCzech Republic
  3. 3.Ecologie, Systématique and Evolution, UMR CNRS 8079Université Paris-SudOrsay CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations