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Abscisic acid, sucrose, and auxin coordinately regulate berry ripening process of the Fujiminori grape

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of abscisic acid (ABA), sucrose, and auxin on grape fruit development and to assess the mechanism of these three factors on the grape fruit ripening process. Different concentrations of ABA, sucrose, and auxin were used to treat the grape fruit, and the ripening-related indices, such as physiological and molecular level parameters, were analyzed. The activity of BG protein activity was analyzed during the fruit development. Sucrose, ABA, and auxin influenced the grape fruit sugar accumulation in different ways, as well as the volatile compounds, anthocyanin content, and fruit firmness. ABA and sucrose induced, but auxin blocked, the ripening-related gene expression levels, such as softening genes PE, PG, PL, and CELL, anthocyanin genes DFR, CHI, F3H, GST, CHS, and UFGT, and aroma genes Ecar, QR, and EGS. ABA, sucrose, and glucose induced the fruit dry weight accumulation, and auxin mainly enhanced fruit dry weight through seed weight accumulation. In the early development of grape, starch was the main energy storage; in the later, it was glucose and fructose. Sucrose metabolism pathway-related gene expression levels were significant for glucose and fructose accumulation. BG protein activity was important in the regulation of grape ABA content levels. ABA plays a core role in the grape fruit development; sucrose functions in fruit development through two pathways: one was ABA dependent, the other ABA independent. Auxin blocked ABA accumulation to regulate the fruit development process.

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Abbreviations

ABA:

Abscisic acid

IAA:

Indole-3-acetic acid

NDGA:

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid

NPA:

1-N-Naphthylphthalamic acid

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Acknowledgements

We would like to express our gratitude to Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences for providing the grape material. This work was supported by the Jiangsu Natural Science Fund (BK20140707), Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture (ZW2014009), China National Natural Science Fund (31401847), China National Natural State Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture (NYB-201508-1) Science Fund (31361140358), and State Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture (NYB-201508-1).

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Correspondence to Haifeng Jia or Jinggui Fang.

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Jia, H., Xie, Z., Wang, C. et al. Abscisic acid, sucrose, and auxin coordinately regulate berry ripening process of the Fujiminori grape. Funct Integr Genomics 17, 441–457 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10142-017-0546-z

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