Functional & Integrative Genomics

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 199–206 | Cite as

The genes for gibberellin biosynthesis in wheat

  • Yuanyuan Huang
  • Wenlong Yang
  • Zhong Pei
  • Xiaoli Guo
  • Dongcheng Liu
  • Jiazhu Sun
  • Aimin ZhangEmail author
Short Communication


The gibberellin biosynthesis pathway is well defined in Arabidopsis and features seven key enzymes including ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase, GA 3-oxidase, and GA 2-oxidase. The Arabidopsis genes were used to identify their counterparts in wheat and the TaCPS, TaKS, TaKO, and TaKAO genes were cloned from Chinese Spring wheat. In order to determine their chromosome locations, expression patterns and feedback regulations, three TaCPS genes, three TaKS genes, three TaKO genes, and three TaKAO genes were cloned from Chinese Spring wheat. They are mainly located on chromosomes 7A, 7B, 7D and 2A, 2B and 2D. The expression patterns of TaCPS, TaKS, TaKO, and TaKAO genes in wheat leaves, young spikes, peduncles, the third and forth internodes were investigated using quantitative PCR. The results showed that all the genes were constitutively expressed in wheat, but their relative expression levels varied in different tissues. They were mainly transcribed in stems, secondly in leaves and spikes, and the least in peduncles. Feedback regulation of the TaCPS, TaKS, TaKO, and TaKAO genes was not evident. These results indicate that all the genes and their homologs may play important roles in the developmental processes of wheat, but each of the homologs may function differently in different tissues or during different developmental stages.


Wheat Gibberellin biosynthesis enzymes Gene cloning Chromosome location Expression regulation 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (90717118 and 30521001).

Supplementary material

10142_2011_243_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.8 mb)
Additional file 1 Nucleotide sequence alignments of three homologs of TaKS, TaKO, and TaKAO. a TaKS, b TaKO, c TaKAO (PDF 2,866 kb)
10142_2011_243_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (1.3 mb)
Additional file 2 Chromosomal localization of TaCPS, TaKS, TaKO, and TaKAO. a The three homologs of TaCPS are located on chromosomes 7A, 7B, and 7D; b The three homologs of TaKS are located on chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 2D; c The three homologs of TaKO are located on chromosomes 7A, 7B, and 7D; d The three homologs of TaKAO are located on chromosomes 4A, 7A, and 7D (PDF 1,299 kb)
10142_2011_243_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (407 kb)
Additional file 3 Feedback regulation of TaCPS, TaKS, TaKO, and TaKAO in wheat treated with PAC or GA3, with H2O treatment as a control. a TaCPS, b TaKS, c TaKO, d TaKAO (PDF 406 kb)


  1. Appleford NE, Evans DJ, Lenton JR, Gaskin P, Croker SJ, Devos KM, Phillips AM, Hedden P (2006) Function and transcript analysis of gibberellin-biosynthetic enzymes in wheat. Planta 223:568–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bensen RJ, Johal GS, Crane VC, Tossberg JT, Schnable PS, Meeley RB, Briggs SP (1995) Cloning and characterization of the maize Anl gene. Plant Cell 7:75–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biemelt S, Tschiersch H, Sonnewald U (2004) Impact of altered gibberellin metabolism on biomass accumulation, lignin biosynthesis, and photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants. Plant Physiol 135:254–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bottini R, Cassán F, Piccoli P (2004) Gibberellin production by bacteria and its involvement in plant growth promotion and yield increase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:497–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davidson SE, Smith JJ (2004) The pea gene LH encodes ent-kaurene oxidase. Plant Physiol 134:1123–1134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davidson SE, Elliott RC, Helliwell CA, Poole AT, Reid JB (2003) The pea gene NA encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase. Plant Physiol 131:335–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davidson SE, Swain SM, Reid JB (2005) Regulation of the early GA biosynthesis pathway in peas. Planta 222:1010–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Devos KM, Dubcovsky J, Dvorak J, Chinoy CN (1995) Structural evolution of wheat chromosomes 4A, 5A and 7B and its impact on recombination. Theor Appl Genet 91:282–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fleet CM, Yamaguchi S (2003) Overexpression of AtCPS and AtKS in Arabidopsis confers increased ent-kaurene production but no increase in bioactive gibberellins. Plant Physiol 132:830–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grennan AK (2006) Gibberellin metabolism enzymes in rice. Plant Physiol 141:524–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hedden P (2003) The genes of the Green Revolution. Trends Genet 19:5–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hedden P, Kamiya Y (1997) Gibberellin biosynthesis: enzymes, genes and their regulation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48:431–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hedden P, Phillips AL, Rojas MC, Carrera E, Tudzynski B (2001) Gibberellin biosynthesis in plants and fungi: a case of convergent evolution? J Plant Growth Regul 20:319–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Helliwell CA, Poole A (1999) Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase catalyzes three steps of gibberellin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 119:507–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Helliwell CA, Sheldon CC, Olive MR, Walker ARW, Zeevaart JAD, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES (1998) Cloning of the Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase gene GA3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:9019–9024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Helliwell CA, Chandler PM, Poole A, Dennis ES, Peacock WJ (2001) The CYP88A cytochrome P450, ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase, catalyzes three steps of the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:2065–2070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950) The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Circ. 347. Agric Exp Stn, Univ of Calif, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  18. Itoh H, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Sentoku N, Kitano H, Matsuoka M, Kobayash M (2001) Cloning and functional analysis of two gibberellin 3β-hydroxylase genes that are differently expressed during the growth of rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:8909–8914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jia Q, Zhang J (2009) GA-20 oxidase as a candidate for the semidwarf gene sdw1/denso in barley. Funct Integr Genom 9:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khlestkina EK, Kumar U, Röder MS (2010) Ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase genes in wheat. Mol Breed 25:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lo S, Yang S, Chen K, Hsing Y, Zeevaart JAD, Chen L, Yu S (2008) A novel class of gibberellin 2-oxidases control semidwarfism, tillering, and root development in rice. Plant Cell 20:2603–2618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Olszewski N, Sun TP, Gubler F (2002) Gibberellin signaling: biosynthesis, catabolism, and response pathways. Plant Cell 14:S61–S80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Otomo K, Kenmoku H (2004) Biological functions of ent- and syn-copalyl diphosphate synthases in rice: key enzymes for the branch point of gibberellin and phytoalexin biosynthesis. Plant J 39:886–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Prisic S, Xu M (2004) Rice contains two disparate ent-Copalyl diphosphate synthases with distinct metabolic functions. Plant Physiol 136:4228–4236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rieu I, Eriksson S, Powers SJ, Gong F, Griffiths J, Woolley L, Benlloch R, Nilsson O, Thomas SG, Hedden P, Phillipsa AL (2008) Genetic analysis reveals that C19-GA 2-oxidation is a major gibberellin inactivation pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 20:2420–2436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Salamini F (2003) Hormones and the Green Revolution. Science 302:71–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schomburg FM, Bizzell CM, Lee D, Zeevaart JAD, Amasino RM (2003) Overexpression of a novel class of gibberellin 2-oxidases decreases gibberellin levels and creates dwarf plants. Plant Cell 15:151–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Silverstone AL, Chang C, Krol E, Sun T (1997) Developmental regulation of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene GA1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 12:9–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Spielmeyer W, Ellis MH, Chandler PM (2002) Semidwarf (sd-1), “Green Revolution” rice, contains a defective gibberellin 20-oxidase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:9043–9048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Spielmeyer W, Ellis M, Robertson M, Ali S, Lenton JR, Chandler PM (2004) Isolation of gibberellin metabolic pathway genes from barley and comparative mapping in barley, wheat and rice. Theor Appl Genet 109:847–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sun T, Kamiya Y (1994) The Arabidopsis GA1 locus encodes the cyclase ent-kaurene synthetase a of gibberellin biosynthesis. Plant Cell 6:1509–1518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Toyomasu T (2008) Recent advances regarding diterpene cyclase genes in higher plants and fungi. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:1168–1175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tudzynski B (2005) Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi: genes, enzymes, evolution, and impact on biotechnology. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66:597–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xu M, Wilderman PR, Morrone D, Xu J, Roy A, Margis-Pinheiro M, Upadhyaya NM, Coates RM, Peters RJ (2007) Functional characterization of the rice kaurene synthase-like gene family. Phytochemistry 68:312–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yamaguchi S (2006) Gibberellin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Phytochemistry Rev 5:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yamaguchi S (2008) Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:225–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yamaguchi S, Sun T, Kawaide H, Kamiya Y (1998) The GA2 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes ent-kaurene synthase of gibberellin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 116:1271–1278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yamaguchi S, Kamiya Y, Sun T (2001) Distinct cell-specific expression patterns of early and late gibberellin biosynthetic genes during Arabidopsis seed germination. Plant J 28:443–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang Y, Ni Z, Yao Y, Nie X, Sun Q (2007) Gibberellins and heterosis of plant height in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). BMC Genet 8:40–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhu Y, Nomura T, Xu Y, Zhang Y, Peng Y, Mao B, Hanada A, Zhou H, Wang R, Li P, Zhu X, Mander LN, Kamiya Y, Yamaguchi S, He Z (2006) Elongated uppermost internode encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that epoxidizes gibberellins in a novel deactivation reaction in rice. Plant Cell 18:442–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuanyuan Huang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Wenlong Yang
    • 1
  • Zhong Pei
    • 2
  • Xiaoli Guo
    • 2
  • Dongcheng Liu
    • 1
  • Jiazhu Sun
    • 1
  • Aimin Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.The State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental BiologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Biological SciencesChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations