Alginate from Sargassum siliquosum Simultaneously Stimulates Innate Immunity, Upregulates Immune Genes, and Enhances Resistance of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)

Abstract

Although alginate is known as an immunostimulant in shrimp, the comprehensive and simultaneous study on its activity to resolve the relationship of the hematological parameters, upregulation of immune-related gene expression, and resistance to pathogen has not been found in shrimp. We performed experiments to evaluate the effect and mechanism of alginate from S. siliquosum on Pacific white shrimp immune system. Hematological parameters were examined after oral administration of Na alginate in the shrimp. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was injected to the shrimp at 14 days, and its copy number was examined quantitatively (qRT-PCR). Immune-related gene expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Alginate increased some hematological immune parameters of shrimp. Before WSSV infection, expression levels of Toll and lectin genes were upregulated. The lectin gene were upregulated post infection, and the Toll gene in all the treatments were downregulated, except the shrimps fed with alginate at 6.0 g kg−1 at 48 h post infection (hpi). The shrimps fed with alginate at 6.0 g kg−1 were the most resistant and gave the least WSSV copy number at 48 hpi. Resistance of shrimps fed the alginate-supplemented diets against WSSV was significantly higher compared to that of the control treatment with 56% and 10% of survival rates, respectively. Oral administration of alginate did not affect the growth and total protein plasma. At 120 h post challenge, alginate treatment at 6.0 g kg−1 exhibited the highest survival rate. It is concluded that oral administration of alginate enhanced the innate immunity by upregulating immune-related gene expression. Consequently, the enhancement of the shrimp innate immunity improves the resistance against WSSV infection.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their gratitude and appreciation to those who helped support this research at the Department of Fisheries, Gadjah Mada University, and at the Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Center, Jepara. Special thanks go to the students, technician, and those who participated in this research. Special thanks go to Zaenal Arifin for the help in rearing the shrimps, Ayuningtyas and Rahayu Rahardiyanti for the help in the sample analyses, and IBM Suastika Jaya for supplying the shrimp larvae.

Funding

Part of this study was financially supported by a grant from the Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University (contract number 1174/PN/PU/2014), and a grant of Research Competency, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia (contract number 200/LPPM/2015).

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Correspondence to Alim Isnansetyo.

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Yudiati, E., Isnansetyo, A., Murwantoko et al. Alginate from Sargassum siliquosum Simultaneously Stimulates Innate Immunity, Upregulates Immune Genes, and Enhances Resistance of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Mar Biotechnol 21, 503–514 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-019-09898-7

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Keywords

  • Alginate
  • Immune response
  • Gene expression
  • Litopenaeus vannamei
  • Sargassum siliquosum
  • White spot syndrome virus