Cuttlebone as a Marine-Derived Material for Preparing Bone Grafts
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The use of synthetic materials for biomedical applications still presents issues owing to the potential for unfavourable safety characteristics. Currently, there is increasing interest in using natural, marine-derived raw materials for bone tissue engineering. In our study, the endoskeleton of the mollusc Sepia, i.e. cuttlebone (CB), was used with regenerated cellulose (RC) to prepare three-dimensional composite bone grafts. CB microparticles were mechanically immobilised within a cellulose gel, resulting in a macroporous structure upon lyophilisation. The interconnected porous structure of the regenerated cellulose/cuttlebone (RC/CB) composite was evaluated by micro-computed tomography. The porosity of the composite was 80%, and the pore size predominantly ranged from 200 to 500 μm. The addition of CB microparticles increased the specific scaffold surface by almost threefold and was found to be approximately 40 mm−1. The modulus of elasticity and compressive strength of the RC/CB composite were 4.0 ± 0.6 and 22.0 ± 0.9 MPa, respectively. The biocompatibility of the prepared RC/CB composite with rat hepatocytes and extensor digitorum longus muscle tissue was evaluated. The obtained data demonstrated that both the composite and cellulose matrix samples were non-cytotoxic and had no damaging effects. These results indicate that this RC/CB composite is a novel material suitable for bone tissue-engineering applications.
KeywordsCuttlebone Regenerated cellulose Bone tissue engineering Cytotoxicity
The authors want to thank Springer Nature Author Services for English grammar proof on the paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All animal procedures were performed in accordance with approved animal handling guidelines (Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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