Marine Biotechnology

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 269–281 | Cite as

Bioconversion of Chitin to Bioactive Chitooligosaccharides: Amelioration and Coastal Pollution Reduction by Microbial Resources

  • Manish Kumar
  • Amandeep Brar
  • V. Vivekanand
  • Nidhi Pareek
Review Article


Chitin-metabolizing products are of high industrial relevance in current scenario due to their wide biological applications, relatively lower cost, greater abundance, and sustainable supply. Chitooligosaccharides have remarkably wide spectrum of applications in therapeutics such as antitumor agents, immunomodulators, drug delivery, gene therapy, wound dressings, as chitinase inhibitors to prevent malaria. Hypocholesterolemic and antimicrobial activities of chitooligosaccharides make them a molecule of choice for food industry, and their functional profile depends on the physicochemical characteristics. Recently, chitin-based nanomaterials are also gaining tremendous importance in biomedical and agricultural applications. Crystallinity and insolubility of chitin imposes a major hurdle in the way of polymer utilization. Chemical production processes are known to produce chitooligosaccharides with variable degree of polymerization and properties along with ecological concerns. Biological production routes mainly involve chitinases, chitosanases, and chitin-binding proteins. Development of bio-catalytic production routes for chitin will not only enhance the production of commercially viable chitooligosaccharides with defined molecular properties but will also provide a means to combat marine pollution with value addition.


Chitooligosaccharides Chitinase Chitosanase Chitin-binding protein Nanobiotechnology Application 


Funding Information

The authors are thankful to Department of Biotechnology and Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, for financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Aam BB, Heggset EB, Norberg AL, Sørlie M, Vårum KM, Eijsink VG (2010) Production of chitooligosaccharides and their potential applications in medicine. Mar Drugs 8:1482–1517PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Babashpour S, Aminzadeh S, Farrokhi N, Karkhane A, Haghbeen K (2012) Characterization of a chitinase (Chit62) from Serratia marcescens B4A and its efficacy as a bioshield against plant fungal pathogens. Biochem Genet 50:722–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Badawy ME, Rabea EI (2009) Potential of the biopolymer chitosan with different molecular weights to control postharvest gray mold of tomato fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 51:110–117Google Scholar
  4. Chatelain PG, Pintado ME, Vasconcelos MW (2014) Evaluation of chitooligosaccharide application on mineral accumulation and plant growth in Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Sci 215:134–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi BK, Kim KY, Yoo YJ, Oh SJ, Choi JH, Kim CY (2001) In vitro antimicrobial activity of a chitooligosaccharide mixture against Actinobacillu sactinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Int J Antimicrob Agents 18:553–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chung YC, Su YP, Chen CC, Jia G, Wang H, Wu JG, Lin JG (2004) Relationship between antibacterial activity of chitosan and surface characteristics of cell wall. Acta Pharmacol Sin 25:932–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Das SN, Madhuprakash J, Sarma P, Purushotham P, Suma K, Manjeet K et al (2013) Biotechnological approaches for field applications of chitooligosaccharides (COS) to induce innate immunity in plants. Crit Rev Biotechnol 35:29–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. de Assis CF, Araújo NK, Pagnoncelli MGB, da Silva Pedrini MR, de Macedo GR, dos Santos ES (2010) Chitooligosaccharides enzymatic production by Metarhizium anisopliae. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 33:893–899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dou J, Tan C, Du Y, Bai X, Wang K, Ma X (2007) Effects of chitooligosaccharides on rabbit neutrophils in vitro. Carbohydr Polym 69:209–213Google Scholar
  10. Dutta PK, Dutta J, Tripathi V (2004) Chitin and chitosan: chemistry, properties and applications. J Sci Ind Res 63:20–31Google Scholar
  11. Dzung PD, Hung LT, Ngoc LS, Hiet HD, Van Le B, Thang NT, Van Phu D, Duy NN, Hien NQ (2017) Induction of anthracnose disease resistance on chili fruit by treatment of oligochitosan—nanosilica hybrid material. Agric Sci 8(10):1105–1113Google Scholar
  12. Elgadir MA, Uddin MS, Ferdosh S, Adam A, Chowdhury AJK, Sarker MZI (2015) Impact of chitosan composites and chitosan nanoparticle composites on various drug delivery systems: a review. J Food Drug Anal 23(4):619–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Elieh-Ali-Komi D, Hamblin MR (2016) Chitin and chitosan: production and application of versatile biomedical nanomaterials. Int J Adv Res 4(3):411–427Google Scholar
  14. Falcón-Rodríguez A, Costales D, Rogers H, Diosdado E, González S, Cabrera G, et al (2012) Practical use of oligosaccharins in agriculture. In: Saa Silva S, et al. (eds) Developing application for oligosaccharins in agriculture. The 1st World Congress on the use of Biostimulants in Agriculture, vol 1009. Strasbourg Congress Centre, France, pp 195–212Google Scholar
  15. Fernandes JC, Eaton P, Nascimento H, Gião MS, Ramos ÓS, Belo L, Santos-Silva A, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2010) Antioxidant activity of chitooligosaccharides upon two biological systems: erythrocytes and bacteriophages. Carbohydr Polym 79:1101–1106Google Scholar
  16. Fukamizo T (2000) Chitinolytic enzymes catalysis, substrate binding, and their application. Curr Protein Pept Sci 1:105–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gao XA, Ju WT, Jung WJ, Park RD (2008) Purification and characterization of chitosanase from Bacillus cereus D-11. Carbohydr Polym 72:513–520Google Scholar
  18. Gerasimenko D, Avdienko I, Bannikova G, Zueva OY, Varlamov V (2004) Antibacterial effects of water-soluble low-molecular-weight chitosans on different microorganisms. Appl Biochem Microbiol 40:253–257Google Scholar
  19. Gomathi P, Ragupathy D, Choi JH, Yeum JH, Lee SC, Kim JC, Do Ghim H (2011) Fabrication of novel chitosan nanofiber/gold nanoparticles composite towards improved performance for a cholesterol sensor. Sensors Actuators B Chem 153(1):44–49Google Scholar
  20. Gomathi T, Sudha PN, Florence JAK, Venkatesan J, Anil S (2017) Fabrication of letrozole formulation using chitosan nanoparticles through ionic gelation method. Int J Biol Macromol 104:1820–1832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamed I, Özogul F, Regenstein JM (2016) Industrial applications of crustacean by-products (chitin, chitosan, and chitooligosaccharides): a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 48:40–50Google Scholar
  22. Hamid R, Khan MA, Ahmad M, Ahmad MM, Abdin MZ, Musarrat J et al (2013) Chitinases: an update. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 5:21–29PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Han Y, Zhao L, Yu Z, Feng J, Yu Q (2005) Role of mannose receptor in oligochitosan-mediated stimulation of macrophage function. Int Immunopharmacol 5:1533–1542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Harman G, Hayes C, Lorito M, Broadway R, Di Pietro A, Peterbauer C et al (1993) Chitinolytic enzymes of Trichoderma harzianum: purification of chitobiosidase and endochitinase. Phytopathology 83:313–318Google Scholar
  25. Hirano S, Nagao N (1989) Effects of chitosan, pectic acid, lysozyme, and chitinase on the growth of several phytopathogens. Agric Biol Chem 53:3065–3066Google Scholar
  26. Il'ina A, Zueva OY, Lopatin S, Varlamov V (2004) Enzymatic hydrolysis of α-chitin. Appl Biochem Microbiol 40:35–38Google Scholar
  27. Je JY, Park PJ, Kim SK (2004) Free radical scavenging properties of hetero-chitooligosaccharides using an ESR spectroscopy. Food Chem Toxicol 42:381–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Jeon YJ, Kim SK (2002) Antitumor activity of chitosan oligosaccharides produced in ultrafiltration membrane reactor system. J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:503–507Google Scholar
  29. Jung WJ, Park RD (2014) Bioproduction of chitooligosaccharides: present and perspectives. Mar Drugs 12:5328–5356PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Kashyap PL, Xiang X, Heiden P (2015) Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture. Int J Biol Macromol 77:36–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Katiyar D, Hemantaranjan A, Singh B (2015) Chitosan as a promising natural compound to enhance potential physiological responses in plant: a review. Indian J Plant Phys 20:1–9Google Scholar
  32. Kheiri A, Moosawi Jorf SA, Malihipour A, Saremi H, Nikkhah M (2017) Synthesis and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles and chitosan effect on Fusarium head blight and oxidative activity in wheat. Int J Biol Macromol 102:526–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Khoushab F, Yamabhai M (2010) Chitin research revisited. Mar Drugs 8(7):1988–2012PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Khoushab F, Jaruseranee N, Tanthanuch W, Yamabhai M (2012) Formation of chitin-based nanomaterials using a chitin-binding peptide selected by phage-display. Int J Biol Macromol 50(5):1267–1274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kim SK, Rajapakse N (2005) Enzymatic production and biological activities of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS): a review. Carbohydr Polym 62:357–368Google Scholar
  36. Kim JY, Lee JK, Lee TS, Park WH (2003) Synthesis of chitooligosaccharide derivative with quaternary ammonium group and its antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Int J Biol Macromol 32:23–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim HM, Hong SH, Yoo SJ, Baek KS, Jeon YJ, Choung SY (2006) Differential effects of chitooligosaccharides on serum cytokine levels in aged subjects. J Med Food 9:427–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kono H, Teshirogi T (2015) Cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan hydrogels for controlled drug delivery. Int J Biol Macromol 72:299–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kulikov S, Chirkov S, Il’ina A, Lopatin S, Varlamov V (2006) Effect of the molecular weight of chitosan on its antiviral activity in plants. Appl Biochem Microbiol 42:200–203Google Scholar
  40. Kumar M, Brar A, Vivekanand V, Pareek N (2017) Production of chitinase from thermophilic Humicola grisea and its application in production of bioactive chitooligosaccharides. Int J Biol Macromol.
  41. Kumari A, Yadav SK, Yadav SC (2010) Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles based drug delivery systems. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 75(1):1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Liang T-W, Hsieh J-L, Wang S-L (2012) Production and purification of a protease, a chitosanase, and chitin oligosaccharides by Bacillus cereus TKU022 fermentation. Carbohydr Res 362:38–46.Google Scholar
  43. Li ZW, Li CW, Wang Q, Shi SJ, Hu M, Zhang Q, Dang JZ (2017) The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying silver nanoparticle/chitosan oligosaccharide/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanofiber-mediated wound healing. J Biomed Nanotechnol 13(1):17–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lodhi G, Kim YS, Hwang JW, Kim SK, Jeon YJ, Je J et al (2014) Chitooligosaccharide and its derivatives: preparation and biological applications. Biomed Res Int:1:1–1:113Google Scholar
  45. Lombard V, Ramulu HG, Drula E, Coutinho PM, Henrissat B (2014) The carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy) in 2013. Nucleic Acids Res 42:D490–D495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Luo Y, Deng L, Deng Q-J, Wen L (2016) Comparative study of the chitooligosaccharides effect on the proliferation inhibition and radio-sensitization of three types of human gastric cell line. Asian Pac J Trop Med 9:601–605Google Scholar
  47. Luo C, Liu W, Luo B, Tian J, Wen W, Liu M, Zhou C (2017) Antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of chitooligosaccharide-modified polyurethane membrane via polydopamine adhesive layer. Carbohydr Polym 156:235–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ma L, Li Y, Yu C, Wang Y, Li X, Li N, Chen Q, Bu N (2012) Alleviation of exogenous oligochitosan on wheat seedlings growth under salt stress. Protoplasma 249:393–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Mahata M, Shinya S, Masaki E, Yamamoto T, Ohnuma T, Brzezinski R, Mazumder TK, Yamashita K, Narihiro K, Fukamizo T (2014) Production of chitooligosaccharides from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710 cells by chitosanase digestion. Carbohydr Res 383:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Manivasagan P, Oh J (2016) Marine polysaccharide-based nanomaterials as a novel source of nanobiotechnological applications. Int J Biol Macromol 82:315–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Manivasagan P, Bharathiraja S, Bui NQ, Lim IG, Oh J (2016) Paclitaxel-loaded chitosan oligosaccharide-stabilized gold nanoparticles as novel agents for drug delivery and photoacoustic imaging of cancer cells. Int J Pharm 511(1):367–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Manivasagan P, Bui NQ, Bharathiraja S, Moorthy MS, Oh YO, Song K, Seo H, Yoon M, Oh J (2017) Multifunctional biocompatible chitosan-polypyrrole nanocomposites as novel agents for photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal ablation of cancer. Sci Rep 7:43593PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Manjeet K, Purushotham P, Neeraja C, Podile AR (2013) Bacterial chitin binding proteins show differential substrate binding and synergy with chitinases. Microbiol Res 168:461–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mogoşanu GD, Grumezescu AM, Bejenaru C, Bejenaru LE (2016) Polymeric protective agents for nanoparticles in drug delivery and targeting. Int J Pharm 510(2):419–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mourya VK, Inamdar NN, Choudhari YM (2011) Chitooligosaccharides: synthesis, characterization and applications. Polym Sci Ser A 53:583–612Google Scholar
  56. Muanprasat C, Chatsudthipong V (2017) Chitosan oligosaccharide: biological activities and potential therapeutic applications. Pharmacol Ther 170:80–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ngo DH, Qian ZJ, Vo TS, Ryu B, Ngo DN, Kim SK (2011) Antioxidant activity of gallate-chitooligosaccharides in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Carbhydr Polym 84:1282–1288Google Scholar
  58. Nguyen AD, Huang CC, Liang TW, Pan PS, Wang SL (2014) Production and purification of a fungal chitosanase and chitooligomers from Penicillium janthinellum D4 and discovery of the enzyme activators. Carbohydr Polym 108:331–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Nidheesh T, Pal GK, Suresh P (2015) Chitooligomers preparation by chitosanase produced under solid state fermentation using shrimp by-products as substrate. Carbohydr Polym 121:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Olicón-Hernández DR, Zepeda Giraud LF, Guerra-Sánchez G (2017) Current applications of chitosan and chito-oligosaccharides. A review. J Drug Des Res 4(2):1039Google Scholar
  61. Palma-Guerrero J, Huang IC, Jansson HB, Salinas J, Lopez-Llorca L, Read N (2009) Chitosan permeabilizes the plasma membrane and kills cells of Neurospora crassa in an energy dependent manner. Fungal Genet Biol 46:585–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Pareek N, Vivekanand V, Dwivedi P, Singh RP (2011) Penicillium oxalicum SAE M-51: a mutagenised strain for enhanced production of chitin deacetylase for bioconversion to chitosan. New Biotechnol 28:118–124Google Scholar
  63. Park PJ, Je JY, Byun HG, Moon SH, Kim SK (2004) Antimicrobial activity of hetero-chitosans and their oligosaccharides with different molecular weights. J Microbiol Biotechnol 14:317–323Google Scholar
  64. Park Y, Kim MH, Park SC, Cheong H, Jang MK, Nah JW, Hahm KS (2008) Investigation of the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of LMWS-chitosan. J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:1729–1734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Pechsrichuang P, Yoohat K, Yamabhai M (2013) Production of recombinant Bacillus subtilis chitosanase, suitable for biosynthesis of chitosan-oligosaccharides. Bioresour Technol 127:407–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Perumal V, Manickam T, Bang KS, Velmurugan P, Oh BT (2016) Antidiabetic potential of bioactive molecules coated chitosan nanoparticles in experimental rats. Int J Biol Macromol 92:63–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Phu DV, Du BD, Tuan LNA, Tam HV, Hien NQ (2017) Preparation and foliar application of oligochitosan-nanosilica on the enhancement of soybean seed yield. Int J Environ Agric Biotechnol 2(1):421–428Google Scholar
  68. Pillai C, Paul W, Sharma CP (2009) Chitin and chitosan polymers: chemistry, solubility and fiber formation. Prog Polym Sci 34:641–678Google Scholar
  69. Prashanth KH, Tharanathan R (2005) Depolymerized products of chitosan as potent inhibitors of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 1722:22–29Google Scholar
  70. Rahman MH, Hjeljord LG, Aam BB, Sørlie M, Tronsmo A (2015) Antifungal effect of chito-oligosaccharides with different degrees of polymerization. Eur J Plant Pathol 141:147–158Google Scholar
  71. Rai M, Ingle AP, Gupta I, Brandelli A (2015) Bioactivity of noble metal nanoparticles decorated with biopolymers and their application in drug delivery. Int J Pharm 496(2):159–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ramezanzade L, Hosseini SF, Nikkhah M (2017) Biopolymer-coated nanoliposomes as carriers of rainbow trout skin-derived antioxidant peptides. Food Chem 234:220–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rasaee I, Ghannadnia M, Honari H (2016) Antibacterial properties of biologically formed chitosan nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum. Nanomed J 3(4):240–247Google Scholar
  74. Rinaudo M (2006) Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications. Prog Polym Sci 31:603–632Google Scholar
  75. Sahai A, Manocha M (1993) Chitinases of fungi and plants: their in morphogenesis and host-parasite. FEMS Microbiol Rev 11:317–338Google Scholar
  76. Sánchez Á, Mengíbar M, Rivera-Rodríguez G, Moerchbacher B, Acosta N, Heras A (2017) The effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical characteristics and antibacterial activity of chitooligosaccharides. Carbohydr Polym 157:251–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Sandri G, Aguzzi C, Rossi S, Bonferoni MC, Bruni G, Boselli C, Cornaglia AI, Riva F, Viseras C, Caramella C, Ferrari F (2017) Halloysite and chitosan oligosaccharide nanocomposite for wound healing. Acta Biomater 57:216–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Sathiyaseelan A, Shajahan A, Kalaichelvan PT, Kaviyarasan V (2017) Fungal chitosan based nanocomposites sponges—an alternative medicine for wound dressing. Int J Biol Macromol 104:1905–1915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Schultze M, Kondorosi Á (1996) The role of lipochitooligosaccharides in root nodule organogenesis and plant cell growth. Curr Opin Genet Dev 6:631–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Schwinghamer T, Souleimanov A, Dutilleul P, Smith D (2014) The plant growth regulator lipo-chitooligosaccharide (LCO) enhances the germination of canola (Brassica napus [L.]). J Plant Growth Regul 34:183–195Google Scholar
  81. Shen KT, Chen MH, Chan HY, Jeng JH, Wang YJ (2009) Inhibitory effects of chitooligosaccharides on tumor growth and metastasis. Food Chem Toxicol 47:1864–1871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Shukla SK, Mishra AK, Arotiba OA, Mamba BB (2013) Chitosan-based nanomaterials: a state-of-the-art review. Int J Biol Macromol 59:46–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Songsiriritthigul C, Pesatcha P, Eijsink VG, Yamabhai M (2009) Directed evolution of a Bacillus chitinase. Biotechnol J 4:501–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Songsiriritthigul C, Lapboonrueng S, Pechsrichuang P, Pesatcha P, Yamabhai M (2010) Expression and characterization of Bacillus licheniformis chitinase (ChiA), suitable for bioconversion of chitin waste. Bioresour Technol 101(11):4096–4103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Su PC, Hsueh WC, Chang WS, Chen PT (2017) Enhancement of chitosanase secretion by Bacillus subtilis for production of chitosan oligosaccharides. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 79:49–54Google Scholar
  86. Subhapradha N, Shanmugam A (2017) Fabrication of β-chitosan nanoparticles and its anticancer potential against human hepatoma cells. Int J Biol Macromol 94:194–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Sun T, Yao Q, Zhou D, Mao F (2008) Antioxidant activity of N-carboxymethyl chitosan oligosaccharides. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:5774–5776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Suzuki K, Sugawara N, Suzuki M, Uchiyama T, Katouno F, Nikaidou N et al (2002) Chitinases A, B, and C1 of Serratia marcescens 2170 produced by recombinant Escherichia coli: enzymatic properties and synergism on chitin degradation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:1075–1083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Tharanathan RN, Kittur FS (2003) Chitin—the undisputed biomolecule of great potential. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43:61–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ueda M, Shioyama T, Nakadoi K, Nakazawa M, Sakamoto T, Iwamoto T, Sakaguchi M (2017) Cloning and expression of a chitinase gene from Eisenia fetida. Int J Biol Macromol 104:1648–1655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Vaaje-Kolstad G, Horn SJ, van Aalten DM, Synstad B, Eijsink VG (2005a) The non-catalytic chitin-binding protein CBP21 from Serratia marcescens is essential for chitin degradation. J Biol Chem 280:28492–28497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Vaaje-Kolstad G, Houston DR, Riemen AH, Eijsink VG, van Aalten DM (2005b) Crystal structure and binding properties of the Serratia marcescens chitin-binding protein CBP21. J Biol Chem 280:11313–11319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Van Aalten D, Komander D, Synstad B, Gåseidnes S, Peter M, Eijsink V (2001) Structural insights into the catalytic mechanism of a family 18 exo-chitinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci 98:8979–8984PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Vander P, Vårum KM, Domard A, El Gueddari NE, Moerschbacher BM (1998) Comparison of the ability of partially N-acetylated chitosans and chitooligosaccharides to elicit resistance reactions in wheat leaves. Plant Physiol 118:1353–1359PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Vasconcelos MW (2014) Chitosan and chitooligosaccharide utilization in phytoremediation and biofortification programs: current knowledge and future perspectives. Front Plant Sci 5:616–620PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Viens P, Lacombe-Harvey MÈ, Brzezinski R (2015) Chitosanases from family 46 of glycoside hydrolases: from proteins to phenotypes. Mar Drugs 13:6566–6587PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Waghmare SR, Ghosh JS (2010) Chitobiose production by using a novel thermostable chitinase from Bacillus licheniformis strain JS isolated from a mushroom bed. Carbohydr Res 345:2630–2635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wang Z, Zheng L, Yang S, Niu R, Chu E, Lin X (2007) N-acetylchitooligosaccharide is a potent angiogenic inhibitor both in vivo and in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 357:26–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Wang Y, Zhang C, Zhang Q, Li P (2011) Composite electrospun nanomembranes of fish scale collagen peptides/chito-oligosaccharides: antibacterial properties and potential for wound dressing. Intl J Nanomed 6:667–676Google Scholar
  100. Wang SL, Liu CP, Liang TW (2012) Fermented and enzymatic production of chitin/chitosan oligosaccharides by extracellular chitinases from Bacillus cereus TKU027. Carbohydr Polym 90:1305–1313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang T, Hou J, Su C, Zhao L, Shi Y (2017) Hyaluronic acid-coated chitosan nanoparticles induce ROS-mediated tumor cell apoptosis and enhance antitumor efficiency by targeted drug delivery via CD44. J Nanobiotechnology 15(1):7PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Woo CJ, Park HD (2003) An extracellular Bacillus sp. chitinase for the production of chitotriose as a major chitinolytic product. Biotechnol Lett 25:409–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Wu GJ, Tsai GJ (2004) Cellulase degradation of shrimp chitosan for the preparation of a water-soluble hydrolysate with immunoactivity. Fish Sci 70:1113–1120Google Scholar
  104. Wu JL, He XY, Jiang PY, Gong MQ, Zhuo RX, Cheng SX (2016) Biotinylated carboxymethyl chitosan/CaCO 3 hybrid nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to overcome tumor drug resistance. RSC Adv 6(73):69083–69093Google Scholar
  105. Xia W, Liu P, Zhang J, Chen J (2011) Biological activities of chitosan and chitooligosaccharides. Food Hydrocoll 25:170–179Google Scholar
  106. Xiong C, Wu H, Wei P, Pan M, Tuo Y, Kusakabe I et al (2009) Potent angiogenic inhibition effects of deacetylated chitohexaose separated from chitooligosaccharides and its mechanism of action in vitro. Carbohydr Res 344:1975–1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Xu Q, Dou J, Wei P, Tan C, Yun X, Wu Y et al (2008) Chitooligosaccharides induce apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via up-regulation of Bax. Carbohydr Polym 71:509–514Google Scholar
  108. Yang S, Fu X, Yan Q, Guo Y, Liu Z, Jiang Z (2016) Cloning, expression, purification and application of a novel chitinase from a thermophilic marine bacterium Paenibacillus barengoltzii. Food Chem 192:1041–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Yang F, Luan B, Sun Z, Yang C, Yu Z, Li X (2017) Application of chitooligosaccharides as antioxidants in beer to improve the flavour stability by protecting against beer staling during storage. Biotechnol Lett 39(2):305–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Yano S, Rattanakit N, Honda A, Noda Y, Wakayama M, Plikomol A et al (2008) Purification and characterization of chitinase A of Streptomyces cyaneus SP-27: an enzyme participates in protoplast formation from Schizophyllum commune mycelia. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Yin H, Zhao X, Du Y (2010) Oligochitosan: a plant diseases vaccine: a review. Carbohydr Polym 82:1–8Google Scholar
  112. Yin H, Li Y, Zhang HY, Wang WX, Lu H, Grevsen K et al (2013) Chitosan oligosaccharides triggered innate immunity contributes to oilseed rape resistance against Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum. Int J Plant Sci 174:722–732Google Scholar
  113. You Y, Park WH, Ko BM, Min BM (2004) Effects of PVA sponge containing chitooligosaccharide in the early stage of wound healing. J Mater Sci Mater Med 15:297–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Youssef AS, El-Sherif MF, Hassan MA, Hassan HM, El-Aassar SA (2013) Purification and properties of chitinase enzyme produced by Bacillus licheniformis. J Pure Appl Microbiol 7:179–188Google Scholar
  115. Zhang Y, Zhou X, Ji L, Du X, Sang Q, Chen F (2017) Enzymatic single-step preparation and antioxidant activity of hetero-chitooligosaccharides using non-pretreated housefly larvae powder. Carbohydr Polym 172:113–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhou Y, Jiang S, Jiao Y, Wang H (2017) Synergistic effects of nanochitin on inhibition of tobacco root rot disease. Int J Biol Macromol 99:205–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Zong H, Li K, Liu S, Song L, Xing R, Chen X, Li P (2017) Improvement in cadmium tolerance of edible rape (Brassica rapa L.) with exogenous application of chitooligosaccharide. Chemosphere 181:92–100PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manish Kumar
    • 1
  • Amandeep Brar
    • 1
  • V. Vivekanand
    • 2
  • Nidhi Pareek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, School of Life SciencesCentral University of Rajasthan BandarsindriAjmerIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Energy and EnvironmentMalaviya National Institute of TechnologyJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations