The Bromotyrosine Derivative Ianthelline Isolated from the Arctic Marine Sponge Stryphnus fortis Inhibits Marine Micro- and Macrobiofouling

Abstract

The inhibition of marine biofouling by the bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline, isolated from the Arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis, is described. All major stages of the fouling process are investigated. The effect of ianthelline on adhesion and growth of marine bacteria and microalgae is tested to investigate its influence on the initial microfouling process comparing with the known marine antifoulant barettin as a reference. Macrofouling is studied via barnacle (Balanus improvisus) settlement assays and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) phenoloxidase inhibition. Ianthelline is shown to inhibit both marine micro- and macrofoulers with a pronounced effect on marine bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 0.1–10 μg/mL) and barnacle larval settlement (IC50 = 3.0 μg/mL). Moderate effects are recorded on M. edulis (IC50 = 45.2 μg/mL) and microalgae, where growth is more affected than surface adhesion. The effect of ianthelline is also investigated against human pathogenic bacteria. Ianthelline displayed low micromolar MIC values against several bacterial strains, both Gram positive and Gram negative, down to 2.5 μg/mL. In summary, the effect of ianthelline on 20 different representative marine antifouling organisms and seven human pathogenic bacterial strains is presented.

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Acknowledgments

Marte Albrigtsen is acknowledged for performing the terrestrial bacterial screen, and Robert Andre Johansen is acknowledged for providing the photograph of S. fortis. The authors are further grateful to Dr. Lindon Moodie (UiT) for linguistic support and to Runar Gjerp Solstad (UiT) for purifying a sample of barettin. The study was performed at MabCent which is a centre for research-based innovation at the UiT and supported by the Research Council of Norway, Grant no 174885/130. HP and GC were supported by the Centre for Marine Chemical Ecology at the University of Gothenburg.

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Hanssen, K.Ø., Cervin, G., Trepos, R. et al. The Bromotyrosine Derivative Ianthelline Isolated from the Arctic Marine Sponge Stryphnus fortis Inhibits Marine Micro- and Macrobiofouling. Mar Biotechnol 16, 684–694 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-014-9583-y

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Keywords

  • Antifouling
  • Bromotyrosine
  • Ianthelline
  • Marine natural product
  • Sponge metabolite