The Bromotyrosine Derivative Ianthelline Isolated from the Arctic Marine Sponge Stryphnus fortis Inhibits Marine Micro- and Macrobiofouling
- 667 Downloads
The inhibition of marine biofouling by the bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline, isolated from the Arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis, is described. All major stages of the fouling process are investigated. The effect of ianthelline on adhesion and growth of marine bacteria and microalgae is tested to investigate its influence on the initial microfouling process comparing with the known marine antifoulant barettin as a reference. Macrofouling is studied via barnacle (Balanus improvisus) settlement assays and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) phenoloxidase inhibition. Ianthelline is shown to inhibit both marine micro- and macrofoulers with a pronounced effect on marine bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 0.1–10 μg/mL) and barnacle larval settlement (IC50 = 3.0 μg/mL). Moderate effects are recorded on M. edulis (IC50 = 45.2 μg/mL) and microalgae, where growth is more affected than surface adhesion. The effect of ianthelline is also investigated against human pathogenic bacteria. Ianthelline displayed low micromolar MIC values against several bacterial strains, both Gram positive and Gram negative, down to 2.5 μg/mL. In summary, the effect of ianthelline on 20 different representative marine antifouling organisms and seven human pathogenic bacterial strains is presented.
KeywordsAntifouling Bromotyrosine Ianthelline Marine natural product Sponge metabolite
Marte Albrigtsen is acknowledged for performing the terrestrial bacterial screen, and Robert Andre Johansen is acknowledged for providing the photograph of S. fortis. The authors are further grateful to Dr. Lindon Moodie (UiT) for linguistic support and to Runar Gjerp Solstad (UiT) for purifying a sample of barettin. The study was performed at MabCent which is a centre for research-based innovation at the UiT and supported by the Research Council of Norway, Grant no 174885/130. HP and GC were supported by the Centre for Marine Chemical Ecology at the University of Gothenburg.
- Barnes H, Barnes M (1962) The distribution and general ecology of Balanus balanoides together with some observations on Balanus improvisus in the waters around the coasts of Denmark, southern Sweden and north-east Germany. Acta Uni Lund 58:1–41Google Scholar
- Dahms HU, Hellio C (2009) Laboratory bio-assays for screening marine antifouling compounds. In: Hellio C, Yebra DM (eds) Advances in marine antifouling coatings and technologies. Woodhead Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Lohner K, Sevcsik E, Pabst G (2008) Liposome-based biomembrane mimetic systems: implications for lipid-peptide interactions. In: Liu AL (ed) Advances in planar lipid bilayers and liposomes. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Okoro HK, Fatoki OS, Adekola FA, Ximba BJ, Snyman RG (2011) Sources, environmental levels and toxicity of organotin in marine environment-a review. Asian J Chem 23:473–482Google Scholar