Marine Biotechnology

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 684–694 | Cite as

The Bromotyrosine Derivative Ianthelline Isolated from the Arctic Marine Sponge Stryphnus fortis Inhibits Marine Micro- and Macrobiofouling

  • Kine Ø. Hanssen
  • Gunnar Cervin
  • Rozenn Trepos
  • Julie Petitbois
  • Tor Haug
  • Espen Hansen
  • Jeanette H. Andersen
  • Henrik Pavia
  • Claire Hellio
  • Johan SvensonEmail author
Original Article


The inhibition of marine biofouling by the bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline, isolated from the Arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis, is described. All major stages of the fouling process are investigated. The effect of ianthelline on adhesion and growth of marine bacteria and microalgae is tested to investigate its influence on the initial microfouling process comparing with the known marine antifoulant barettin as a reference. Macrofouling is studied via barnacle (Balanus improvisus) settlement assays and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) phenoloxidase inhibition. Ianthelline is shown to inhibit both marine micro- and macrofoulers with a pronounced effect on marine bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 0.1–10 μg/mL) and barnacle larval settlement (IC50 = 3.0 μg/mL). Moderate effects are recorded on M. edulis (IC50 = 45.2 μg/mL) and microalgae, where growth is more affected than surface adhesion. The effect of ianthelline is also investigated against human pathogenic bacteria. Ianthelline displayed low micromolar MIC values against several bacterial strains, both Gram positive and Gram negative, down to 2.5 μg/mL. In summary, the effect of ianthelline on 20 different representative marine antifouling organisms and seven human pathogenic bacterial strains is presented.


Antifouling Bromotyrosine Ianthelline Marine natural product Sponge metabolite 



Marte Albrigtsen is acknowledged for performing the terrestrial bacterial screen, and Robert Andre Johansen is acknowledged for providing the photograph of S. fortis. The authors are further grateful to Dr. Lindon Moodie (UiT) for linguistic support and to Runar Gjerp Solstad (UiT) for purifying a sample of barettin. The study was performed at MabCent which is a centre for research-based innovation at the UiT and supported by the Research Council of Norway, Grant no 174885/130. HP and GC were supported by the Centre for Marine Chemical Ecology at the University of Gothenburg.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kine Ø. Hanssen
    • 1
  • Gunnar Cervin
    • 2
  • Rozenn Trepos
    • 3
  • Julie Petitbois
    • 3
  • Tor Haug
    • 4
  • Espen Hansen
    • 5
  • Jeanette H. Andersen
    • 5
  • Henrik Pavia
    • 2
  • Claire Hellio
    • 6
  • Johan Svenson
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Research-based Innovation on Marine Bioactivities and Drug Discovery (MabCent)UiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway
  2. 2.Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences-TjärnöUniversity of GothenburgStrömstadSweden
  3. 3.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK
  4. 4.Norwegian College of Fishery ScienceUiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway
  5. 5.Marbio, UiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway
  6. 6.Université de Bretagne Occidentale, LEMAR UMR 6539, IUEM - Technopole Brest-IroisePlouzanéFrance
  7. 7.Department of ChemistryUiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway

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