Marine Biotechnology

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 219–229 | Cite as

Modulation of Lipid Metabolism by Deep-Sea Water in Cultured Human Liver (HepG2) Cells

  • Shan He
  • Jiejie Hao
  • Weibing Peng
  • Peiju Qiu
  • Chunxia Li
  • Huashi Guan
Original Article


It has been found that deep-sea water was associated with lower serum lipid in animal model studies. Herein, we investigated whether DSW exerted a hypolipidemic activity and further elucidated how DSW modulated lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. Preliminary animal studies showed that DSW exhibited potency to decrease serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and increase HDL cholesterol, and the hepatic lipid contents were also significantly lower in the DSW group. When DSW was added to HepG2 cells, it decreased the lipid contents of hepatocyte through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, thus inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acid. Besides, LDL receptor was upregulated by activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2. In addition, the levels of apolipoprotein AI and cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase were also raised. Our investigation provided mechanisms by which DSW modulated lipid metabolism and indicated that DSW was worthy of further investigation and could be developed as functional drinking water in the prevention and treatment of hypolipidemic and other lifestyle-related diseases.


Deep-sea water (DSW) Hypolipidemic HepG2 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 



Deep-sea water


AMP-activated protein kinase


Sterol regulatory element-binding protein


LDL receptor


3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase


Total cholesterol




HDL cholesterol


LDL cholesterol


Cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase

Apo AI

Apolipoprotein AI


Cardiovascular diseases


High-fat diet


Aspartate aminotransferase


Alanine aminotransferase




Artificial mineral water


Acetyl-CoA carboxylase


Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1


Fatty acid synthase


Stearoyl-CoA desaturase


Lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase


Lipoprotein lipase











This work was supported in part by Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT0944), and Special Fund for Marine Scientific Research in the Public Interest (201005024). The authors gratefully acknowledge staffs from the Research Vessel Centre of Ocean University of China for their generous assistance in this experiment.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education, Marine Drugs and Food InstituteOcean University of ChinaQingdaoPeople′s Republic of China
  2. 2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of BiosensorsBiology Institute of Shandong Academy of SciencesJinanPeople′s Republic of China

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