Marine Biotechnology

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 552–558 | Cite as

Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

  • Yong-Xin Li
  • Hui-Xian Wu
  • Ying Xu
  • Chang-Lun Shao
  • Chang-Yun Wang
  • Pei-Yuan QianEmail author
Original Article


Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure—activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity.


Antifouling Antilarval settlement Structure—activity relationship Marine natural products Balanus amphitrite 



This study was supported by a research grant (DY125-15-T-02) from the China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association, a joint research grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (N_HKUST602/09 and No. 41130858), and an award (SA-C0040/UK-C001) from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) granted to P.Y. Qian.

Supplementary material

10126_2013_9502_MOESM1_ESM.docx (307 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 306 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong-Xin Li
    • 1
  • Hui-Xian Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ying Xu
    • 1
  • Chang-Lun Shao
    • 3
  • Chang-Yun Wang
    • 3
  • Pei-Yuan Qian
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.KAUST Global Collaborative Research, Division of Life ScienceHong Kong University of Science and TechnologyHong KongPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Fisheries and Life ScienceShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education of China, School of Medicine and PharmacyOcean University of ChinaQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China

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