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Induction of Mitogynogenetic Diploids and Identification of WW Super-female Using Sex-Specific SSR Markers in Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

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Abstract

The half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is an important cultured marine fish as well as a promising model fish for the study of sex determination mechanisms. In the present study, a protocol for artificial induction of mitogynogenesis by hydrostatic pressure using heterologous sperm was developed in half-smooth tongue sole in order to assess homozygosity of gynogens and to identify WW super-female. The optimal initiation time for pressure shock of mitogynogenetic embryos was determined to be 21.5 min after insemination when water temperature is at 22–23°C, while the optimal pressure and treatment duration were determined to be 70 MPa for 4 min. About 1,500 mitogynogenetic diploid larvae were obtained. Ten tongue sole microsatellite markers were used for homozygosity analysis of 24 mitogynogenetic larvae. Among the 24 larvae, the percentage of homozygosity ranged from 73.91% to 87.50% with an average homozygosity of 80.54%. Sex-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, CseF-SSR1, were isolated and used for identifying WW super-female mitogynogens in the tongue sole. The amplification of genomic DNA using the sex-specific SSR marker produced one DNA band of 206 bp in ZZ males, two DNA bands of 206 and 218 bp in ZW females, and one DNA band of 218 bp in WW super-females. Four WW “super-female” gynogens were observed in 39 mitogynogenetic diploids, indicating a ZW sex determination mechanism in the tongue sole. Thus, a protocol for the induction of artificial mitogynogenesis has been developed for the first time in half-smooth tongue sole, and the WW super-female diploids were identified in the mitogynogens by sex-specific SSR markers. These findings lay the foundation and provide important tool for the elaboration of sex determination mechanism, generation of WW super-females, and development of clone line and breeding of all-female stock in the half-smooth tongue sole.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest, China (200903046).

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Correspondence to Song-Lin Chen.

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Chen, SL., Ji, XS., Shao, CW. et al. Induction of Mitogynogenetic Diploids and Identification of WW Super-female Using Sex-Specific SSR Markers in Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Mar Biotechnol 14, 120–128 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-011-9395-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-011-9395-2

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