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Manganese removal and product characteristics of a marine manganese-oxidizing bacterium Bacillus sp. FF-1


Biogenic manganese oxides (BioMnOx) have been found all over the world, and most of them were formed by Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB). In this study, a MnOB designated as FF-1 was isolated from marine surface sediments in the Bohai Sea, China. This strain was identified as Bacillus sp. and can tolerate more than 5% salinity. It can grow in the presence of 0–7 mM Mn(II) and pH range from 5.0 to 7.0. When the initial Mn(II) was 5 mM, the percentage of Mn(II) oxidation reached the highest value of 16% after 10 days of incubation. The initial pH (5.0 to 7.0) affected the percentage of Mn(II) oxidation, but the ability of the strain FF-1 to self-regulate pH resulted in the final pH being almost 7.6. The removal of Mn(II) by the strain FF-1 involves extracellular and intracellular adsorption as well as Mn(II) oxidation. Intracellular Mn adsorption contributed a small part to the total Mn removal, and extracellular adsorption was dominant in the initial stage of Mn removal. The solid products after Mn removal were a mixture of MnOx and MnCO3. The layered MnOx formed in the extracellular space could be easily collected and used for adsorption and oxidation of pollutants.

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BioMnOx :

Biogenic manganese oxides


Energy dispersion analysis


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry


Leucoberbelin blue


Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria


Mn(II)-oxidizing microbes


Manganese oxides (1 < x < 2)


Scanning electron microscope


Transmission electron microscope


X-ray adsorption near edge spectroscopy


X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy


X-ray diffraction


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The authors are financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41977197), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (DUT20JC49), Xingliao Talent Plan Projects in Liaoning province (XLYC1907109), and Dalian Municipal Outstanding Youth Science And Technology Talent Project (2019RJ09).

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Correspondence to Lun Song or Hao Zhou.

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Wu, J., Kang, F., Wang, Z. et al. Manganese removal and product characteristics of a marine manganese-oxidizing bacterium Bacillus sp. FF-1. Int Microbiol (2022).

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  • Bacillus
  • Oxidation
  • Bioremediation
  • Identification
  • Environmental