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Lindane removal in contaminated soil by defined microbial consortia and evaluation of its effectiveness by bioassays and cytotoxicity studies

Abstract

Lindane contamination in different environmental matrices has been a global concern for long. Bacterial consortia consisting of Paracoccus sp. NITDBR1, Rhodococcus rhodochrous NITDBS9, Ochrobactrum sp. NITDBR3, NITDBR4 and NITDBR5 were used for the bioremediation of soil artificially contaminated with lindane. The bacteria, Paracoccus sp. NITDBR1 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous NITDBS9, have been selected based on their lindane degrading capacity in liquid culture conditions (~80-90 %). The remaining three bacteria were chosen for their auxiliary properties for plant growth promotion, such as nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production and ammonia production under in vitro conditions. In this study, market wastes, mainly vegetable wastes, were added to the soil as a biostimulant to form a biomixture for assisting the degradation of lindane by bioaugmentation. Residual lindane was measured at regular intervals of 7 days to monitor the biodegradation process. It was observed that the consortium could degrade ~80% of 50 mg kg-1 lindane in soil which was further increased in the biomixture after six weeks of incubation. Bioassays performed on plant seeds and cytotoxicity studies performed on human skin fibroblast and HCT116 cell lines revealed that the groups contaminated with lindane and treated with the bacterial consortium showed lower toxicity than their respective controls without any bacteria. Hence, the use of both pesticide degrading and plant growth-promoting bacteria in a consortium can be a promising strategy for improved bioremediation against chemical pesticides, particularly in soil and agricultural fields, simultaneously enhancing crop productivity in those contaminated soil.

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Data availability

The 16S rRNA gene sequences were previously deposited in GenBank at NCBI, under accession numbers KY971629, MT071666, MH777099, MH777100 and MH777101.

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Not applicable.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Sudit Sekhar Mukhopadhay, Professor, Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, West Bengal, India, for providing human skin fibroblast cell line used in this study. We thank Dr. Ashish Bhattacharjee, Associate Professor, Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, West Bengal, India, for providing the HCT116 cell lines used in this study and for his help with understanding the cytotoxicity experiments and data. We thank Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, India, for NPK analysis. We also thank Pilla Sai Kiran, Department of Earth and Environment Science, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, West Bengal, India, for helping with soil and vegetable waste characterization.

Funding

This research was funded by National Institute of Technology Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal, India, as institute funding for Ph.D research of the scholars.

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Conceptualization: Surabhi Chaudhuri; Investigation and Formal Analysis: Banishree Sahoo; Writing—original draft preparation: Banishree Sahoo; Writing—review and editing: Surabhi Chaudhuri and Banishree Sahoo. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Banishree Sahoo.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Sahoo, B., Chaudhuri, S. Lindane removal in contaminated soil by defined microbial consortia and evaluation of its effectiveness by bioassays and cytotoxicity studies. Int Microbiol 25, 365–378 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10123-022-00232-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10123-022-00232-1

Keywords

  • Bioaugmentation
  • Biostimulation
  • Bioassay
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Plant growth-promoting
  • Pesticide