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Antifungal and antibiofilm efficacy of cinnamaldehyde-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles against Candida albicans


Biofilm-associated Candida infections threaten public health and show high mortality. The drugs used in treatment are very limited due to reasons such as toxicity, low efficacy, and drug resistance, and new alternatives are needed. The use of natural products of plant origin in the biofilm management draws attention. CA (cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic aldehyde, or 3-phenyl-2-propenal) is an essential oil component that can also inhibit mold growth and mycotoxin production. However, there are some limitations in its use due to its poor solubility and volatility in water. Recently, the combination of natural components and nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems shows positive results. In this study, the effects of PLGA (poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)) nanoparticles arrested with CA (CA-PLGA NPs) on C. albicans planktonic and biofilm forms (prebiofilm and postbiofilm) were investigated. According to the results, the amount of active ingredient loaded in CA-PLGA NPs is much lower than the free CA and a strong antifungal effect was obtained even at this rate. Also, the postbiofilm application is more effective than prebiofilm application. PLGA NPs can also be a useful carrier for other essential oils, and their potential in various antifungal, antibiofilm, and biomedical applications should be investigated.

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We thank Eskisehir Osmangazi University Central Research Laboratory Application and Research Center (ARUM) for allowing all facilities and infrastructure to use.


This work was supported by ESOGU-MERLAB 201646051 project.

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Bükay Yenice Gürsu and İlknur Dağ carried out microbiological studies. Gökhan Dikmen carried out the nanoparticle studies. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Bükay Yenice Gursu.

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Gursu, B.Y., Dag, İ. & Dikmen, G. Antifungal and antibiofilm efficacy of cinnamaldehyde-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles against Candida albicans. Int Microbiol 25, 245–258 (2022).

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  • Biofilm
  • PLGA nanoparticles
  • Cinnamaldehyde
  • Candida