Soil salinity is regarded as severe environmental stress that can change the composition of rhizosphere soil bacterial community and import a plethora of harms to crop plants. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between salt stress and root microbial communities in groundnuts. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of salt stress on groundnut growth performance and rhizosphere microbial community structure. Statistical analysis exhibited that salt stress indeed affected groundnut growth and pod yield. Further taxonomic analysis showed that the bacterial community predominantly consisted of phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Saccharibacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Among these bacteria, numbers of Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria mainly increased, while that of Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi decreased after salt treatment via taxonomic and qPCR analysis. Moreover, Sphingomonas and Microcoleus as the predominant genera in salt-treated rhizosphere soils might enhance salt tolerance as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Metagenomic profiling showed that series of sequences related to signaling transduction, posttranslational modification, and chaperones were enriched in the salt-treated soils, which may have implications for plant survival and salt tolerance. These data will help us better understand the symbiotic relationship between the dominant microbial community and groundnuts and form the foundation for further improvement of salt tolerance of groundnuts via modification of soil microbial community.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bai Y et al (2015) Functional overlap of the Arabidopsis leaf and root microbiota. Nature 528:364–369. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16192
Bates ST, Clemente JC, Flores GE, Walters WA, Parfrey LW, Knight R, Fierer N (2013) Global biogeography of highly diverse protistan communities in soil. ISME J 7:652–659. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2012.147
Blaxter M, Mann J, Chapman T, Thomas F, Whitton C, Floyd R, Abebe E (2005) Defining operational taxonomic units using DNA barcode data. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 360:1935–1943. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2005.1725
Boudsocq M, Lauriere C (2005) Osmotic signaling in plants: multiple pathways mediated by emerging kinase families. Plant Physiol 138:1185–1194. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.105.061275
Bulgarelli D et al (2012) Revealing structure and assembly cues for Arabidopsis root-inhabiting bacterial microbiota. Nature 488:91–95. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11336
Bullerjahn GS, Post AF (2014) Physiology and molecular biology of aquatic cyanobacteria. Front Microbiol 5:359. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00359
Caporaso JG et al (2010) QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat Methods 7:335–336. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.f.303
Chakraborty K, Bhaduri D, Meena HN, Kalariya K (2016) External potassium (K(+)) application improves salinity tolerance by promoting Na(+)-exclusion, K(+)-accumulation and osmotic adjustment in contrasting peanut cultivars. Plant Physiol Biochem 103:143–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.02.039
Chen H, Boutros PC (2011) VennDiagram: a package for the generation of highly-customizable Venn and Euler diagrams in R. BMC Bioinformatics 12:35. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-12-35
Dai L, Zhang G, Yu Z, Ding H, Xu Y, Zhang Z (2019) Effect of drought stress and developmental stages on microbial community structure and diversity in peanut rhizosphere soil. Int J Mol Sci 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092265
Damodharan K, Palaniyandi SA, Le B, Suh JW, Yang SH (2018) Streptomyces sp. strain SK68, isolated from peanut rhizosphere, promotes growth and alleviates salt stress in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). J Microbiol 56:753–759. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12275-018-8120-5
Deinlein U, Stephan AB, Horie T, Luo W, Xu G, Schroeder JI (2014) Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms. Trends Plant Sci 19:371–379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2014.02.001
Dennis PG, Miller AJ, Hirsch PR (2010) Are root exudates more important than other sources of rhizodeposits in structuring rhizosphere bacterial communities? FEMS Microbiol Ecol 72:313–327. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.00860.x
Edgar RC, Haas BJ, Clemente JC, Quince C, Knight R (2011) UCHIME improves sensitivity and speed of chimera detection. Bioinformatics 27:2194–2200. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr381
Evelin H, Kapoor R, Giri B (2009) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review. Ann Bot 104:1263–1280. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp251
Finkel OM, Castrillo G, Herrera Paredes S, Salas Gonzalez I, Dangl JL (2017) Understanding and exploiting plant beneficial microbes. Curr Opin Plant Biol 38:155–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2017.04.018
Foesel BU et al (2014) Determinants of Acidobacteria activity inferred from the relative abundances of 16S rRNA transcripts in German grassland and forest soils. Environ Microbiol 16:658–675. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12162
Fu C, Liu XX, Yang WW, Zhao CM, Liu J (2016) Enhanced salt tolerance in tomato plants constitutively expressing heat-shock protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Genet Mol Res 15. https://doi.org/10.4238/gmr.15028301
Geng LL, Shao GX, Raymond B, Wang ML, Sun XX, Shu CL, Zhang J (2018) Subterranean infestation by Holotrichia parallela larvae is associated with changes in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) rhizosphere microbiome. Microbiol Res 211:13–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2018.02.008
Guan P, Wang J, Li H, Xie C, Zhang S, Wu C, Yang G, Yan K, Huang J, Zheng C (2018) Sensitive to SALT1, an endoplasmic reticulum-localized chaperone, positively regulates salt resistance. Plant Physiol 178:1390–1405. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.18.00840
Langille MG et al (2013) Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene sequences. Nat Biotechnol 31:814–821. https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.2676
Lareen A, Burton F, Schafer P (2016) Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes. Plant Mol Biol 90:575–587. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11103-015-0417-8
Li Q et al (2018) Belowground interactions impact the soil bacterial community, soil fertility, and crop yield in maize/peanut intercropping systems. Int J Mol Sci 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020622
Masuda LS, Enrich-Prast A (2016) Benthic microalgae community response to flooding in a tropical salt flat. Braz J Biol 76:577–582. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.18314
Mendes R, Garbeva P, Raaijmakers JM (2013) The rhizosphere microbiome: significance of plant beneficial, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic microorganisms. FEMS Microbiol Rev 37:634–663. https://doi.org/10.1111/1574-6976.12028
Mickelbart MV, Hasegawa PM, Bailey-Serres J (2015) Genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance that translate to crop yield stability. Nat Rev Genet 16:237–251. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg3901
Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092911
Naylor D, DeGraaf S, Purdom E, Coleman-Derr D (2017) Drought and host selection influence bacterial community dynamics in the grass root microbiome. ISME J 11:2691–2704. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2017.118
Peng RH et al (2008) Microbial biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:927–955. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2008.00127.x
Segata N, Izard J, Waldron L, Gevers D, Miropolsky L, Garrett WS, Huttenhower C (2011) Metagenomic biomarker discovery and explanation. Genome Biol 12:R60. https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-r60
Singh H (2018) Desiccation and radiation stress tolerance in cyanobacteria. J Basic Microbiol 58:813–826. https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201800216
Suzuki N, Koussevitzky S, Mittler R, Miller G (2012) ROS and redox signalling in the response of plants to abiotic stress. Plant Cell Environ 35:259–270. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02336.x
Szymanska S, Borruso L, Brusetti L, Hulisz P, Furtado B, Hrynkiewicz K (2018) Bacterial microbiome of root-associated endophytes of Salicornia europaea in correspondence to different levels of salinity. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25:25420–25431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2530-0
Tashyreva D, Elster J (2015) Effect of nitrogen starvation on desiccation tolerance of Arctic Microcoleus strains (cyanobacteria). Front Microbiol 6:278. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00278
Ullah A, Sun H, Yang X, Zhang X (2017) Drought coping strategies in cotton: increased crop per drop. Plant Biotechnol J 15:271–284. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12688
Ullah A, Akbar A, Luo Q, Khan AH, Manghwar H, Shaban M, Yang X (2018) Microbiome diversity in cotton Rhizosphere under Normal and drought conditions. Microb Ecol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-018-1260-7
Wan L et al (2014) Identification of ERF genes in peanuts and functional analysis of AhERF008 and AhERF019 in abiotic stress response. Funct Integr Genomics 14:467–477. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10142-014-0381-4
Wang Y, Sheng HF, He Y, Wu JY, Jiang YX, Tam NF, Zhou HW (2012) Comparison of the levels of bacterial diversity in freshwater, intertidal wetland, and marine sediments by using millions of illumina tags. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:8264–8271. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01821-12
Wang X et al (2018) Genomic and transcriptomic analysis identified gene clusters and candidate genes for oil content in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plant. Mol Biol Report 36:518–529. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11105-018-1088-9
Wu L et al (2018) Comparative metagenomic analysis of rhizosphere microbial community composition and functional potentials under rehmannia glutinosa Consecutive Monoculture. Int J Mol Sci 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082394
Xie CH, Yokota A (2006) Sphingomonas azotifigens sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the roots of Oryza sativa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:889–893. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.64056-0
Xu Y, Yu Z, Zhang D, Huang J, Wu C, Yang G, Yan K, Zhang S, Zheng C (2018) CYSTM, a novel non-secreted cysteine-rich peptide family, involved in environmental stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol 59:423–438. https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcx202
Xu Y et al (2019) CYSTM3 negatively regulates salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 99:395–406. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11103-019-00825-x
Yang J, Kloepper JW, Ryu CM (2009) Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci 14:1–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2008.10.004
Yu Z et al (2019) CEPR2 phosphorylates and accelerates the degradation of PYR/PYLs in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 70:5457–5469. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erz302
Zhu JK (2001) Plant salt tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 6:66–71
Zuo Y, Xie W, Pang Y, Li T, Li Q, Li Y (2017) Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. PLoS One 12:e0188919. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188919
The work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFD1000906) and the Agricultural Scientific and the Technological Innovation Project of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CXGC2018E21).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Xu, Y., Zhang, G., Ding, H. et al. Influence of salt stress on the rhizosphere soil bacterial community structure and growth performance of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Int Microbiol 23, 453–465 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10123-020-00118-0
- 16S rRNA
- Bacterial community
- Salt stress
- Arachis hypogaea L.