Gastric Cancer

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 672–679 | Cite as

Indication for endoscopic treatment based on the risk of lymph node metastasis in patients with Siewert type II/III early gastric cancer

  • Jeung Hui Pyo
  • Hyuk Lee
  • Yang Won Min
  • Byung-Hoon Min
  • Jun Haeng Lee
  • Kyoung-Mee Kim
  • Heejin Yoo
  • Soohyun Ahn
  • Jae J. Kim
Original Article



Because of the poor prognosis of proximal gastric cancers, there is debate as to whether the conventional indications for endoscopic resection can be used.


Among subjects who underwent surgery for esophagogastric junction or gastric cardia cancer, 256 patients with T1 type II/III of the Siewert classification were included in this study. The association of lymph node metastasis (LNM) with each variable was analyzed using logistic regression models. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the discriminatory ability of the model. Propensity score-matched non-cardia cancer patients were selected to compare LNM and long-term survival rates.


Of the 256 patients with T1 Siewert II/III gastric cancer, 21 (8.2%) had LNM. Because there was no LNM in T1a cancers, risk factors were analyzed only in patients with T1b. Tumor size (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10–1.82, P = 0.007) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (OR 5.13, 95% CI 1.88–14.06, P = 0.002) were determined to be predictors of LNM (sensitivity = 66.7% and specificity = 81.6%). Among patients without LVI, the groups with negligible risk for LNM were mucosa-confined cancer, or SM1 cancer with a tumor size ≤3 cm. No LNM was observed in patients satisfying the absolute or extended criteria for endoscopic resection of early gastric cancers. LNM and long-term survival rates of patients with Siewert II/III did not differ significantly compared with matched non-cardia cancer patients.


Tumor size and LVI were associated with LNM in patients with early Siewert type II/III gastric cancer, and the expanded indication for endoscopic resection may be used.


Early gastric cancer Siewert type II/III Endoscopic resection Lymph node metastasis 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

Ethical approval

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions. Because of the retrospective nature of the study, the requirement for informed consent was waived.

Supplementary material

10120_2017_789_MOESM1_ESM.tif (2.1 mb)
Online Resource 1. Distribution of lymph node metastasis in T1 Siewert II/III gastric cancer (TIFF 2139 kb)
10120_2017_789_MOESM2_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Online Resource 2 Lymph node metastasis in patients with Siewert II/III cancers and matched non-cardia T1 cancers (DOCX 19 kb)
10120_2017_789_MOESM3_ESM.tif (987 kb)
Online Resource 3. Overall survival in T1 Siewert II/III gastric cancer and matched non-cardia cancer (TIFF 987 kb)
10120_2017_789_MOESM4_ESM.tif (911 kb)
Online Resource 4. Disease-specific survival in T1 Siewert II/III gastric cancer and matched non-cardia cancer (TIFF 911 kb)
10120_2017_789_MOESM5_ESM.tif (1 mb)
Online Resource 5. Recurrence-free survival in T1 Siewert II/III gastric cancer and matched non-cardia cancer (TIFF 1057 kb)


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Copyright information

© The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Health PromotionSamsung Medical CenterSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of MedicineSamsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of PathologySamsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Statistics and Data Center, Research Institute for Future MedicineSamsung Medical CenterSeoulRepublic of Korea

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