Chinese Journal of Polymer Science

, Volume 36, Issue 7, pp 859–865 | Cite as

Fractionated and Confined Crystallization of Polybutene-1 in Immiscible Polypropylene/Polybutene-1 Blends

  • Yao Xu
  • Chen-Guang Liu
  • Hua-Rong Nie
  • Ai-Hua He


In this work, the crystallization of immiscible polypropylene (PP)/polybutene-1 (PB) blends, in particular the effect of crystal morphology of PP (HTC, high Tm component) on the subsequent crystallization behavior of PB (LTC, low Tm component) was studied. Herein, we firstly indicated that PP/PB blends were not completely compatible but characterized as the LCST-like phase diagram above the melting temperature of PP. Crystallization of PP at different crystallization temperatures brought about different PP crystal morphologies and PB was segregated and confined at different locations. Much larger-sized domain of PB component appeared in PP spherulites resulting from the effects of non-negligible phase separation and the slower PP crystallization rate as PP crystallized at high temperature. As temperature continued to fall below Tm of PB, the fractionated and confined crystallization of PB occurred in the framework of PP spherulites, reflected by the decreased crystallization temperature (Tc) of PB and the formation of form I′ beside form II. Notably, if PP previously crystallized at high Tc, fractionated crystallization of PB became predominant and confined crystallization of PB became weak due to the much wider droplet-size distribution of PB domains.


Polypropylene Polybutene Confined crystallization Morphology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This work was financially supported by Shandong Provincial Key R&D Program (No. 2015GGX102019) and the Taishan Scholar Program.


  1. 1.
    Luciani, L.; Seppälä, J.; Löfgren, B. Poly-1-butene: its preparation, properties and challenges. Prog. Polym. Sci. 1988, 13(1), 37–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jones, A. T.; Aizlewood, J. M.; Beckett, D. R. Crystalline forms of isotactic polypropylene. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2010, 75(1), 134–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Siegmann, A. Crystallization of crystalline/crystalline blends: polypropylene/polybutene-1. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1982, 27(3), 1053–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee, M. S. The polymer-polymer interaction parameter in polybutene-1/polypropylene blends. J. Polym. Res. 1996, 3(4), 235–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ji, Y.; Su, F.; Li, L. B. Mixing assisted direct formation of isotactic poly(1-butene) form I′ crystals from blend melt of isotactic poly(1-butene)/polypropylene. Macromolecules 2016, 49, 1761–1769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tol, R. T.; Mathot, V. B. F.; Groeninckx, G. Confined crystallization phenomena in immiscible polymer blends with dispersed micro and nanometer sized PA6 droplets, part 2: reactively compatibilized PS/PA6 and (PPE/PS)/PA6 blends. Polymer 2005, 46(2), 383–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    He, Z.; Liang, Y.; Han, C. C. Confined nucleation and growth of poly(ethylene oxide) on the different crystalline morphology of poly(butylene succinate) from a miscible blend. Macromolecules 2013, 46(20), 8264–8274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Qiu, Z.; Yan, C.; Lu, J.; Yang, W. Miscible crystalline/crystalline polymer blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(butylenes succinate-co-butylene adipate): spherulitic morphologies and crystallization kinetics. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 5047–5053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    He, Y.; Zhu, B.; Kai, W.; Inoue, Y. Nanoscale-confined and fractional crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) in the interlamellar region of poly(butylene succinate). Macromolecules 2004, 37, 3337–3345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    He, Y.; Zhu, B.; Kai, W.; Inoue, Y. Effects of crystallization condition of poly(butylene succinate) component on the crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) component in their miscible blends. Macromolecules 2004, 37, 8050–8056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yordanov, C.; Minkova, L. Fractionated crystallization of compatibilized LDPE/PA6 blends. Eur. Polym. J. 2005, 41(3), 527–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pompe, G.; Pötschke, P.; Pionteck, J. Reactive melt blending of modified polyamide and polypropylene: assessment of compatibilization by fractionated crystallization and blend morphology. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2002, 86(13), 3445–3453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arnal, M. L.; Müller, A. J.; Maiti, P.; Hikosaka, M. Nucleation and crystallization of isotactic poly(propylene) droplets in an immiscible polystyrene matrix. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2000, 201(17), 2493–2504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balsamo, V.; Gouveia, L. M. Interplay of fractionated crystallization and morphology in polypropylene/poly(ε- caprolactone) blends. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2007, 45(11), 1365–1379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morales, R. A.; Arnal, M. L.; Müller, A. J. The evaluation of the state of dispersion in immiscible blends where the minor phase exhibits fractionated crystallization. Polym. Bull. 1995, 35(3), 379–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bernal-Lara, T. E.; Liu, R. Y. F.; Hiltner, A.; Baer, E. Structure and thermal stability of polyethylene nanolayers. Polymer 2005, 46(9), 3043–3055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Everaert, V.; Groeninckx, G.; Koch, M. H. J.; Reynaers, H. Influence of fractionated crystallization on the semicrystalline structure of (POM/(PS/PPE)) blends. Static and time-resolved SAXS, WAXD and DSC studies. Polymer 2003, 44(12), 3491–3508.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bose, S.; Bhattacharyya, A. R.; Kodgire, P. V.; Misra, A. Fractionated crystallization in PA6/ABS blends: influence of a reactive compatibilizer and multiwall carbon nanotubes. Polymer 2007, 48(1), 356–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cormia, R. L.; Price, F. P.; Turnbull, D. Kinetics of crystal nucleation in polyethylene. J. Chem. Phys. 1962, 37(6), 1333–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shieh, Y. T.; Lee, M. S.; Chen, S. A. Crystallization behavior, crystal transformation, and morphology of polypropylene/polybutene-1 blends. Polymer 2001, 42(9), 4439–4448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kalay, G.; Kalay, C. R. Compounding and injection molding of polybutene-1/polypropylene blends. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2003, 88(3), 806–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen, W.; Li, X.; Li, L. B. Deformation-induced crystal-crystal transition of polybutene-1: an in situ FTIR imaging study. J. Mater. Sci. 2013, 48(14), 4925–4933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shao, H. F.; Ma, Y. P.; Nie, H. R. Solvent vapor annealing induced polymorphic transformation of polybutene-1. Chinese J. Polym. Sci. 2016, 34(9), 1141–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zeng, W. Preparation and properties of PB-1/PP blends. Polym. Plast. Technol. 2012, 51(7), 744–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arnal, M. L.; Matos, M. E.; Morales, R. A. Evaluation of the fractionated crystallization of dispersed polyolefins in a polystyrene matrix. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 1998, 199(10), 2275–2288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shibata, M.; Teramoto, N.; Inoue, Y. Mechanical properties, morphologies, and crystallization behavior of plasticized poly(l-lactide)/poly(butylene succinate-co-l-lactate) blends. Polymer 2007, 48(9), 2768–2777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ding, M. M.; Fu, X. T.; Cao, J.; Fu, Q. Fractionated crystallization of HDPE in PS/POE/HDPE/SBS blends. Chinese J. Polym. Sci. 2008, 26(6), 733–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Chemical Society, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Olefin Catalysis and Polymerization, Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics (Ministry of Education), School of Polymer Science and EngineeringQingdao University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations