Knowledge and Information Systems

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 835–859 | Cite as

Integrating heterogeneous information via flexible regularization framework for recommendation

  • Chuan Shi
  • Jian Liu
  • Fuzhen ZhuangEmail author
  • Philip S. Yu
  • Bin Wu
Regular Paper


Recently, there is a surge of social recommendation, which leverages social relations among users to improve recommendation performance. However, in many applications, social relations are very sparse or absent. Meanwhile, the attribute information of users or items may be rich. It is a big challenge to exploit this attribute information for the improvement of recommendation performance. In this paper, we organize objects and relations in recommender system as a heterogeneous information network and introduce meta-path-based similarity measure to evaluate the similarity of users or items. Furthermore, a matrix factorization-based dual regularization framework SimMF is proposed to flexibly integrate different types of information through adopting users’ and items’ similarities as regularization on latent factors of users and items. Extensive experiments not only validate the effectiveness of SimMF but also reveal some interesting findings. We find that attribute information of users and items can significantly improve recommendation accuracy, and their contribution seems more important than that of social relations. The experiments also reveal that different regularization models have obviously different impacts on users and items.


Recommender system Heterogeneous information network Matrix factorization Similarity measure 



This work is supported by National Key Basic Research and Department (973) Program of China (No. 2013CB329606), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 71231002, 61473273), the CCF-Tencent Open Fund, the Co-construction Project of Beijing Municipal Commission of Education, US NSF through grants III-1526499, and 2015 Microsoft Research Asia Collaborative Research Program.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chuan Shi
    • 1
  • Jian Liu
    • 1
  • Fuzhen Zhuang
    • 2
    Email author
  • Philip S. Yu
    • 3
  • Bin Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Beijing Key Lab of Intelligent Telecommunications Software and MultimediaBeijing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsBeijingChina
  2. 2.The Key Lab of Intelligent Information Processing of Chinese Academy of SciencesInstitute of Computing TechnologyBeijingChina
  3. 3.University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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