Knowledge and Information Systems

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 245–284 | Cite as

Self-labeled techniques for semi-supervised learning: taxonomy, software and empirical study

  • Isaac TrigueroEmail author
  • Salvador García
  • Francisco Herrera
Survey Paper


Semi-supervised classification methods are suitable tools to tackle training sets with large amounts of unlabeled data and a small quantity of labeled data. This problem has been addressed by several approaches with different assumptions about the characteristics of the input data. Among them, self-labeled techniques follow an iterative procedure, aiming to obtain an enlarged labeled data set, in which they accept that their own predictions tend to be correct. In this paper, we provide a survey of self-labeled methods for semi-supervised classification. From a theoretical point of view, we propose a taxonomy based on the main characteristics presented in them. Empirically, we conduct an exhaustive study that involves a large number of data sets, with different ratios of labeled data, aiming to measure their performance in terms of transductive and inductive classification capabilities. The results are contrasted with nonparametric statistical tests. Note is then taken of which self-labeled models are the best-performing ones. Moreover, a semi-supervised learning module has been developed for the Knowledge Extraction based on Evolutionary Learning software, integrating analyzed methods and data sets.


Learning from unlabeled data Semi-supervised learning  Self-training Co-training Multi-view learning Classification 



This work is supported by the Research Projects TIN2011-28488, TIC-6858 and P11-TIC-7765.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isaac Triguero
    • 1
    Email author
  • Salvador García
    • 2
  • Francisco Herrera
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, Research Center on Information and Communications Technology (CITIC-UGR)University of GranadaGranada Spain
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of JaénJaénSpain

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