Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 18, Issue 7, pp 1969–1981 | Cite as

Grazing, forest density, and carbon storage: towards a more sustainable land use in Caatinga dry forests of Brazil

  • Katharina Schulz
  • Maike Guschal
  • Ingo Kowarik
  • Jarcilene S. Almeida-Cortez
  • Everardo V. S. B. Sampaio
  • Arne Cierjacks
Original Article


Grazing is the main land use in semi-arid regions of the world, and sustainable management practices are urgently needed to prevent their degradation. However, how different grazing intensities affect forest density and ecosystem functions is often not sufficiently understood to allow for management adaptations that safeguard the ecosystems and their functions in the long run. We assessed the aboveground carbon stocks and plant densities along a grazing gradient in the semi-arid seasonally dry tropical forest of north-eastern Brazil (Caatinga). On 45 study plots, we analysed the aboveground carbon stocks of the vegetation and determined forest density and recruitment as well as the population structure of the most abundant tree species. Grazing intensity was accounted for based on the weight of livestock droppings and classified as low, intermediate, or high. Mean aboveground carbon stock was 15.74 ± 1.92 Mg ha−1 with trees and shrubs accounting for 89% of the total amount. Grazing at high intensities significantly reduced aboveground carbon stocks of herbs but not of other plant functional types. Instead, aboveground carbon stocks of trees and shrubs were negatively related to altitude above sea level, which is a proxy for reduced water availability along with lower anthropogenic impact. The population structure of the most common tree species was characterised by abundant recruitment, irrespective of grazing, whereas the recruitment of less frequent woody species was negatively affected by grazing. Overall, our data imply that grazing and forage management need to be adapted, including the reduction of free-roaming livestock and storage of fodder, to maintain carbon storage and forest density.


Aboveground carbon stocks Seasonally dry tropical forest Ecosystem function Semi-arid Goats Grazing intensity 



This study was financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Germany (grant number BMBF 01LL0904A/E), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Brazil/National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (MCTi/CNPq; grant number 490003/2012-5), and the Foundation of Science and Technology of Pernambuco (FACEPE; grant number APQ—0842-2.05/12); Almeida-Cortez and Sampaio were supported by fellowships from Brazilian CNPq (grant numbers PQ—307422/2012-7 and 307717/2013-5).

We thank Karin Stock de Oliveira, Jens von dem Bussche, Pedro Guedes, and Karsten Voigt for support during field work. The Prefeitura Municipal de Itacuruba and Floresta and the Secretaria de Agricultura de Itacuruba facilitated contacts to landowners and farmers who kindly provided access to their properties. The Prefeitura Municipal de Itacuruba very kindly supported our work by providing accommodation. The team of the Herbarium Dardano de Andrade Lima (IPA) helped to identify plant species. We also thank Kelaine Ravdin for improving our English. Two anonymous reviewers made valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10113_2018_1303_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (413 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 412 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katharina Schulz
    • 1
  • Maike Guschal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ingo Kowarik
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jarcilene S. Almeida-Cortez
    • 4
  • Everardo V. S. B. Sampaio
    • 5
  • Arne Cierjacks
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Ecology, Ecosystem Science/Plant EcologyTechnische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Museum of Zoology, Senckenberg Natural History Collection DresdenDresdenGermany
  3. 3.Berlin-Brandenburg Institute of Advanced Biodiversity Research (BBIB)BerlinGermany
  4. 4.Departamento de Botânica, Centro de BiociênciasUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  5. 5.Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Centro de Tecnologia e GeociênciasUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil

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