Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 1707–1719 | Cite as

Impacts of war in Syria on vegetation dynamics and erosion risks in Safita area, Tartous, Syria

  • Hazem Ghassan AbdoEmail author
Original Article


Vegetation change and soil erosion are among the most serious environmental issues associated with the current the war in Syria. About 13 million people have been displaced, of which 8 million are inside Syria. The Syrian coastal region has received 1.4 million people of refugees since the onset of the war in Syria, resulting in an increased demand of services and goods from ecosystems, thus increasing the overall pressure from human activities on natural resources, especially vegetation and soil. The Syrian coastal region constitutes an important economic, touristic, and agricultural center in Syria. More than 90% of the vegetation of Syria is concentrated in the western coastal region. The study aims to assess the changes of vegetation cover and soil erosion in Safita area during the period 2011–2017 using satellite observations (NDVI) and a soil loss model (RUSLE). The results indicate a massive variation of vegetation cover, where degradation has occurred mainly in areas with high and very high densities of vegetation cover. As a result, soil erosion rates and their risk grades have increased remarkably. The estimated soil erosion amounted to 20.14 and 23.19 t ha−1 year−1 in 2011 and 2017, respectively. However, the results of this study make it a must for local planners to intervene quickly by using reliable and effective conservation techniques. A comprehensive analysis revealed that this unexpected pressure created by refugees can also significantly and swiftly alter the environmental characteristics of the area with potential serious consequences. So, impact of war in Syria on natural resources in the safe areas is a complex process which requires further detailed studies.


Syrian coastal region Vegetation dynamics Soil erosion risk NDVI RUSLE model 



The author gratefully thanks rector of Tartous University Prof. Dr. Issam Al-dali for unlimited support. Sincerely thanks also go to Prof. Dr. Fatina Yaseen Alshaal and Prof. Dr. Juliet Salloum for academic support, and Ms. Homam Knaj and Mrs. Rania Hassan for administrative support. The author expresses his deep and sincere thanks to the anonymous reviewer and the editor for their valuable comments, suggestions, assistance, and constructive criticism in the improvement of earlier version of the manuscript, and Ms. Wafeeq Asaad for editing the English of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geography Department, Faculty of Arts and HumanitiesTartous UniversityTartousSyria

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