Advertisement

Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 1535–1553 | Cite as

Climate change research in Bangladesh: research gaps and implications for adaptation-related decision-making

  • H.M. Tuihedur RahmanEmail author
  • Gordon M. Hickey
  • James D. Ford
  • Malcolm A. Egan
Review

Abstract

In this paper, we present the results of a systematic literature review of climate change vulnerability-related research conducted in Bangladesh between 1994 and 2017 in order to identify trends and knowledge gaps. Our results identify interesting evolutions in the temporal and spatial scales of study and the nature of spatial and thematic associations, suggesting important knowledge gaps in the existing literature that likely limit understandings of scale-sensitive climate change impacts. We also observed a temporal mismatch between the published studies and policy-making processes focused on adaptation and mitigation and a bias towards the economic aspects of climate change, with less focus on social and environmental issues. Thematically, the climate change-related scholarship in Bangladesh would benefit from more integrative, cross-theme, and transdisciplinary studies, potentially drawing on the different theoretical constructs of vulnerability and adaptation. Such studies will be needed to better support evidence-based public policy and also to more accurately reflect the diversity of knowledge gaps and challenges concerning climatic stresses in Bangladesh at different scales and in different contexts.

Keywords

Bangladesh Climate change Adaptation Vulnerability Systematic review Knowledge synthesis 

Notes

Funding information

We would like to acknowledge the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation and IPCC for their financial support to conduct the research. Additional funding support was provided by the William Dawson Scholar Award, McGill University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclaimer

The comments of the paper are solely the responsibility of the authors and under no circumstances may be considered as a reflection of the position of the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation and/or the IPCC.

Supplementary material

10113_2017_1271_MOESM1_ESM.docx (22 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 21 kb)
10113_2017_1271_MOESM2_ESM.docx (51 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 50 kb)

References

  1. Acharjee TK, Halsema G, Ludwig F, Hellegers P (2017) Declining trends of water requirements of dry season Boro rice in the north-west Bangladesh. Agric Water Manag 180:148–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger WN (2001) Scales of governance and environmental justice for adaptation and mitigation of climate change. J Int Dev 13(7):921–931.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.833 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adger W, Huq S, Brown K (2003) Adaptation to climate change in the developing world. Prog Dev Stud 3:179–195.  https://doi.org/10.1191/1464993403ps060oa CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adger WN, Arnell NW, Tompkins EL (2005) Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Glob Environ Chang 15(2):77–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adger WN, Paavola J, Huq S, Mace MJ (2006) Toward justice in adaptation to climate change. In: Adger WN, Paavola J, Huq S, Mace MJ (ed) Fairness in adaptation to climate change. MIT Press, London, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  6. Adger WN, Eakin H, Winkels A (2009) Nested and teleconnected vulnerabilities to environmental change. Front Ecol Environ 7(3):150–157.  https://doi.org/10.1890/070148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Adger WN, Barnett J, Brown K, Marshall N, O’Brien K (2012) Cultural dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation. Nat Clim Chang 3(2):112–117.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1666 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Adri N, Simon D (2017) A tale of two groups: focusing on the differential vulnerability of “climate-induced” and “nonclimate-induced” migrants in Dhaka City. Clim Dev.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2017.1291402
  9. Ahamad MG, Khondker RK, Ahmed ZU, Tanin F (2013) Seasonal food insecurity in Bangladesh: evidences from northern areas. Mit Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 18(7): 1077–1088.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-012-9408-0
  10. Ahammad R, Hossain MK, Husnain P (2014) Governance of forest conservation and co-benefits for Bangladesh under changing climate. J For Res 25(1):29–36.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-014-0430-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ahmed S, Cokinos C (2017) How does ecological modernization explain agriculture adaptation in coastal Bangladesh? A critical discussion. Environ Hazards 16:133–148.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2017.1279047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ahmed N, Diana JS (2015) Coastal to inland: expansion of prawn farming for adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh. Aquac Reports 2:67–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqrep.2015.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ahmed N, Glaser M (2016) Coastal aquaculture, mangrove deforestation and blue carbon emissions: is REDD+ a solution? Mar Policy 66:58–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.01.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ahmed N, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Muir JF (2013) The impact of climate change on prawn post larvae fishing in coastal Bangladesh: socioeconomic and ecological perspectives. Mar Pol 39:224–233.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Alam E, Collins AE (2010) Cyclone disaster vulnerability and response experiences in coastal Bangladesh. Disasters 34(4):931–954.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7717.2010.01176.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Alam M, Rabbani MDG (2007) Vulnerabilities and responses to climate change for Dhaka. Environ Urban 19(1):81–97.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247807076911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Alam K, Shamsuddoha M, Tanner T, Sultana M, Huq MJ, Kabir SS (2011) The political economy of climate resilient development planning in Bangladesh. IDS Bull 42(3):52–61.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2011.00222.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Amin RM, Zhang J, Yang M (2015) Effects of climate change on the yield and cropping area of major food crops: a case of Bangladesh. Sustain 7:898–915.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su7010898 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Anik SI, Khan MASA (2012) Climate change adaptation through local knowledge in the north eastern region of Bangladesh. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 17(8):879–896.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-011-9350-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Anwar MS, Takewaka S (2014) Analyses on phenological and morphological variations of mangrove forests along the southwest coast of Bangladesh. J Coast Conserv 18:339–357.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-014-0321-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Arnell NW (2010) Adapting to climate change: an evolving research programme. Clim Chang 100(1):107–111.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-010-9839-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ayers J (2011) Resolving the adaptation paradox: exploring the potential for deliberative adaptation policy-making in Bangladesh. Glob Environ Polit 11(1):62–88.  https://doi.org/10.1162/GLEP_a_00043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ayers J, Forsyth T (2009) Community-based adaptation to climate change. Environ Sci Pol Sustain Dev 51(4):22–31.  https://doi.org/10.3200/ENV.51.4.22-31 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ayers JM, Huq S (2009) Supporting adaptation to climate change: what role for official development assistance? Dev Policy Rev 27(6):675–692.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7679.2009.00465.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ayers JM, Huq S, Faisal AM, Hussain ST (2014) Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into development: a case study of Bangladesh. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Chang 5(1):37–51.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.226 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Banks N, Roy M, Hulme D (2011) Neglecting the urban poor in Bangladesh: research, policy and action in the context of climate change. Environ Urban 23(2):487–502.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247811417794 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Banu S, Hu W, Guo Y, Hurst C, Tong S (2014) Projecting the impact of climate change on dengue transmission in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environ Int 63:137–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2013.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Barua S, van Ast J (2011) Towards interactive flood management in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Water Pol 13(5):693–716.  https://doi.org/10.2166/Wp.2011.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. BCCSAP (2009) Bangladesh climate change strategy and action plan. Ministry of Environment and Forest. Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka https://www.iucn.org/downloads/bangladesh_climate_change_strategy_and_action_plan_2009.pdf. Accessed 3 April 2015Google Scholar
  30. Bergman MM (2011) The good, the bad, and the ugly in mixed methods research and design. J Mix Methods Res 5(4):271–275.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689811433236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Berrang-Ford L, Ford JD, Paterson J (2011) Are we adapting to climate change? Glob Environ Chang 21(1):25–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Berrang-Ford L, Pearce T, Ford JD (2015) Systematic review approaches for climate change adaptation research. Reg Environ Chang 15(5):755–769.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-014-0708-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Braun B, Aßheuer T (2011) Floods in megacity environments: vulnerability and coping strategies of slum dwellers in Dhaka/Bangladesh. Nat Hazards 58:771–787.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9752-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brooks N, Adger WN, Kelly PM (2005) The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Glob Environ Chang 15:151–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Burkart K, Schneider A, Breitner S, Khan MH, Krämer A, Endlicher W (2011) The effect of atmospheric thermal conditions and urban thermal pollution on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Bangladesh. Environ Pollut 159(8–9):2035–2043.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Burkart K, Breitner S, Schneider A, Khan MM, Kramer A, Endlicher W (2014) An analysis of heat effects in different subpopulations of Bangladesh. Int J Biometeorol 58(2):227–237.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-013-0668-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Burton I, Huq S, Lim B, Pilifosova O, Schipper EM (2002) From impacts assessment to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy. Clim Pol 2(2–3):145–159.  https://doi.org/10.3763/cpol.2002.0217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cardona OD, van Aalst MK, Birkmann J, Fordham M, McGregor G, Perez R et. al., (2012) Determinants of risk: exposure and vulnerability. In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL et. al., (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 25–64Google Scholar
  39. Cash DW, Moser SC (2000) Linking global and local scales: designing dynamic assessment and management processes. Glob Environ Chang 10(2):109–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(00)00017-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cash DW, Adger WN, Berkes F, Garden P, Lebel L, Olsson P, Pritchard L, Young O (2006) Scale and cross-scale dynamics: governance and information in a multilevel world. Ecol Soc 11(2):8 http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss2/art8/. Accessed 15 May 2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cash BA, Rodó X, Kinter JL (2008) Links between Tropical Pacific SST and Cholera incidence in Bangladesh: role of the Eastern and Central Tropical Pacific. J Clim 21(18):4647–4663.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2001.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cash BA, Rodó X, Kinter JL (2009) Links between Tropical Pacific SST and Cholera incidence in Bangladesh: role of the Eastern and Central Tropical Pacific. J Clim 21(18):4647–4663.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2001.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chapin FS, Knapp CN, Brinkman TJ, Bronen R, Cochran P (2016) Community-empowered adaptation for self-reliance. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 19:67–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2015.12.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cinner JE, McClanahan TR, Graham NAJ, Daw TM, Maina J, Stead SM, Wamukota A, Brown K, Bodin O (2012) Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries. Glob Environ Chang 22:12–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Coirolo C, Rahman A (2014) Power and differential climate change vulnerability among extremely poor people in Northwest Bangladesh: lessons for mainstreaming. Clim Dev 6:336–344.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2014.934774 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Coirolo C, Commins S, Haque I, Pierce G (2013) Climate change and social protection in Bangladesh: are existing programmes able to address the impacts of climate change? Dev Policy Rev 31:74–90.  https://doi.org/10.1111/dpr.12040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Comrey AL (1962) The minimum residual method of factor analysis. Psychol Rep 11:15–18.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1962.11.1.15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Comrey AL, Ahmudu A (1964) An improved procedure and program for minimum residual factor analysis. Psychol Rep 15:91–96.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1964.15.1.91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dasgupta S, Huq M, Zahirul HK, Masud MS, Ahmed MMZ, Mukherjee N, Pandey K (2011) Climate proofing infrastructure in Bangladesh: the incremental cost of limiting future flood damage. J Environ Dev 20(2):167–190.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1070496511408401 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dasgupta S, Huq M, Khan ZH, Ahmed MMZ, Mukherjee N, Khan MF, Pandey K (2014) Cyclones in a changing climate: the case of Bangladesh. Clim Dev 6(2):96–110.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2013.868335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dastagir MR (2015) Modeling recent climate change induced extreme events in Bangladesh: a review. Weather Clim Extrem 7:49–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2014.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Deb JC, Rahman HMT, Roy A (2016) Freshwater swamp forest trees of Bangladesh face extinction risk from climate change. Wetlands 36:323–334.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-016-0741-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Denscombe M (2008) Communities of practice: a research paradigm for the mixed methods approach. J Mix Methods Res 2(3):270–283.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689808316807 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Devine-Wright P (2013) Think global, act local? The relevance of place attachments and place identities in a climate changed world. Glob Environ Chang 23(1):61–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dilling L (2007) Towards science in support of decision making: characterizing the supply of carbon cycle science. Environ Sci Pol 10(1):48–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2006.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dilling L, Lemos MC (2011) Creating usable science: opportunities and constraints for climate knowledge use and their implications for science policy. Glob Environ Chang 21(2):680–689.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Etzold B, Ahmed AU, Hassan SR, Neelormi S (2014) Clouds gather in the sky, but no rain falls. Vulnerability to rainfall variability and food insecurity in Northern Bangladesh and its effects on migration. Clim Dev 6(1):18–27.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2013.833078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fabrigar LR, Wegener DT (2011) Exploratory factor analysis. Oxford University Press, New York.  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199734177.001.0001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Faisal IM, Parveen S (2004) Food security in the face of climate change, population growth, and resource constraints: implications for Bangladesh. Environ Manag 34(4):487–498.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-003-3066-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fankhauser S, Burton I (2011) Spending adaptation money wisely. Clim Pol 11(3):1037–1049.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2011.582389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ford JD, King D (2015) A framework for examining adaptation readiness. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 20(4):505–526.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-013-9505-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ford JD, Pearce T (2010) What we know, do not know, and need to know about climate change vulnerability in the western Canadian Arctic: a systematic literature review. Environ Res Lett 5(1):014008.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/5/1/014008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ford JD, Pearce T (2012) Climate change vulnerability and adaptation research focusing on the Inuit subsistence sector in Canada: directions for future research. Can Geogr 56(2):275–287.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.2012.00418.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, King M, Frugal C (2010a) Vulnerability of aboriginal health systems in Canada to climate change. Glob Environ Chang 20(4):668–680.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ford JD, Keskitalo ECH, Smith T, Pearce T, Berrang-Ford L, Duerden F, Smit B (2010b) Case study and analogue methodologies in climate change vulnerability research. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Chang 1(3):374–392.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.48 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, Paterson J (2011) Are we adapting to climate change? Glob Environ Chang 21(1):25–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ford JD, Bolton KC, Shirley J, Pearce T, Tremblay M, Westlake M (2012) Research on the human dimensions of climate change in Nunavut, Nunavik, and Nunatsiavut: a literature review and gap analysis. Arctic 65(3):289–304 http://www.jstor.org/stable/41758936. Accessed 15 May 2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ford JD, Knight M, Pearce T (2013) Assessing the “usability” of climate change research for decision-making: a case study of the Canadian international polar year. Glob Environ Chang 23(5):1317–1326.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ford JD, McDowell G, Jones J (2014) The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic. Environ Res Lett 9(10):104005.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/104005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, Bunce A, McKay IM, Pearce T (2015) The status of climate change adaptation in Africa and Asia. Reg Environ Chang 15(5):801–814.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-014-0648-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Füssel HM (2007) Adaptation planning for climate change: concepts, assessment approaches, and key lessons. Sustain Sci 2(2):265–275.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-007-0032-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Füssel H, Klein RJT (2004) Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking. Clim Chang 75(3):301–329.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-0329-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gain AK, Hoque MM (2013) Flood risk assessment and its application in the eastern part of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. J Flood Risk Manag 6(3):219–228.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gain AK, Wada Y (2014) Assessment of future water scarcity at different spatial and temporal scales of the Brahmaputra River Basin. Water Resour Manag 28(4):999–1012.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-014-0530-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gain AK, Immerzeel WW, Weiland FCS, Bierkens MFP (2011) Impact of climate change on the stream flow of the lower Brahmaputra: trends in high and low flows based on discharge-weighted ensemble modelling. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 15(5):1537–1545.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-1537-2011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gain AK, Apel H, Renaud FG, Giupponi C (2013) Thresholds of hydrologic flow regime of a river and investigation of climate change impact—the case of the lower Brahmaputra river basin. Clim Chang 120:463–475.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0800-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gallopín GC (2006) Linkages between vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity. Glob Environ Chang 16(3):293–303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gerring J (2004) What is a case study and what is it good for? Am Polit Sci Rev 98(02):341–354.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055404001182 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gibson CC, Ostrom E, Ahn TK (2000) The concept of scale and the human dimensions of global change: a survey. Ecol Econ 32(2):217–239.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00092-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gray CL, Mueller V (2012) Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(16):6000–6005.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1115944109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Green S, Higgins JPT (2011) Preparing a Cochrane review. In: Higgins JPT, Greenm S (eds) Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions: Cochrane book series. John Willey and Sons, Sussex, pp 11–29.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470712184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Green S, Higgins JPT, Alderson P, Clarke M, Mulrow CD, Oxman AD (2011) Introduction. In: Higgins JPT, Greenm S (eds) Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions: Cochrane book series. John Willey and Sons, Sussex, pp 3–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470712184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Haarstad H (2014) Climate Change, Environmental Governance and the Scale Problem: The Scale Problem. Geogr Compass 8:87–97.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12111
  84. Habiba U, Shaw R, Takeuchi Y (2014) Farmers’ adaptive practices for drought risk reduction in the northwest region of Bangladesh. Nat Hazards 72:337–359.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-1011-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Harrison PA, Holman IP, Cojocaru G, Kok K, Kontogianni A, Metzger MJ, Gramberger M (2013) Combining qualitative and quantitative understanding for exploring cross-sectoral climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in Europe. Reg Environ Chang 13(4):761–780.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-012-0361-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hassani-Mahmooei B, Parris BW (2012) Climate change and internal migration patterns in Bangladesh: an agent-based model. Environ Dev Econ 17(06):763–780.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X12000290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hinkel J (2011) “Indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity”: towards a clarification of the science–policy interface. Glob Environ Chang 21:198–208.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hossain MN, Chowdhury S, Paul SK (2016) Farmer-level adaptation to climate change and agricultural drought: empirical evidences from the Barind region of Bangladesh. Nat Hazards 83:1007–1026.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2360-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hossain MS, Dearing JA, Eigenbrod F, Johnson FA (2017) Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems. Sci Total Environ 584-585:673–682.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.095 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Huq S (2011) Lessons of climate change, stories of solutions: Bangladesh: adaptation. Bull At Sci 67(1):56–59.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0096340210393925 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Huq S, Khan MR (2006) Equity in National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs): the case study of Bangladesh. In: Adger WN, Paavola J, Huq S, Mace MJ (eds) Fairness in adaptation to climate change. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 181–200Google Scholar
  92. IPCC (2012) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srex/SREX_Full_Report.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2015Google Scholar
  93. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2/. Accessed 16 May 2015Google Scholar
  94. Islam SMF (2011) Decision support system for ex ante cost-benefit assessment of new agro-technology in the context of climate change. Int J Sustain Soc 3(1):82–106.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSSoc.2011.038479 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Islam M, Sallu S, Hubacek K, Paavola J (2014) Migrating to tackle climate variability and change? Insights from coastal fishing communities in Bangladesh. Clim Chang 124(4):733–746.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1135-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Jabeen H, Guy S (2015) Fluid engagements: responding to the co-evolution of poverty and climate change in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Habit Int 47:307–314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jabeen H, Johnson C, Allen A (2010) Built-in resilience: learning from grassroots coping strategies for climate variability. Environ Urban 22(2):415–431.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247810379937 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Juhola S, Westerhoff L (2011) Challenges of adaptation to climate change across multiple scales: a case study of network governance in two European countries. Environ Sci Pol 14(3):239–247.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2010.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kabir MJ, Alauddin M, Crimp S (2017) Farm-level adaptation to climate change in Western Bangladesh: an analysis of adaptation dynamics, profitability and risks. Land Use Policy 64:212–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.02.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kamata A, Bauer DJ (2008) A note on the relation between factor analytic and item response theory models. Struc Equ Model 15:136–153.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701758406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Karim M, Mimura N (2008) Impacts of climate change and sea-level rise on cyclonic storm surge floods in Bangladesh. Glob Environ Chang 18(3):490–500.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Karim Z, Hussain SG, Ahmed M (1996) Assessing impacts of climatic variations on food grain production in Bangladesh. Water Air Soil Pollut 92(1–2):53–62.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00175552 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kartiki K (2011) Climate change and migration: a case study from rural Bangladesh. Gend Dev 19:23–38.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13552074.2011.554017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kelly PM, Adger WN (2000) Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaptation. Clim Chang 47:325–352.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005627828199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Khan TMA, Singh OP, Rahman MS (2000) Recent sea level and sea surface temperature trends along the Bangladesh coast in relation to the frequency of intense cyclones. Mar Geod 23(2):103–116.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01490410050030670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Khan AE, Ireson A, Kovats S, Mojumder SK, Khusru A, Rahman A, Vineis P (2011a) Drinking water salinity and maternal health in coastal Bangladesh: implications of climate change. Environ Health Perspect 119:1328–1332.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Khan AE, Xun WW, Ahsan H, Vineis P (2011b) Climate change, sea-level rise, and health impacts in Bangladesh. Environ Sci Policy Sustain Dev 53(5):37–41.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00139157.2011.604008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Khan MMH, Gruebner O, Kraemer A (2014) Is area affected by flood or stagnant water independently associated with poorer health outcomes in urban slums of Dhaka and adjacent rural areas? Nat Hazards 70(1):549–565.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0829-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kumar D, Arya DS, Murumkar AR, Rahman MM (2014) Impact of climate change on rainfall in Northwestern Bangladesh using multi-GCM ensembles. Int J Climatol 34(5):1395–1404.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3770 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lalor BM, Hickey GM (2014) Strengthening the role of science in the environmental decision-making processes of executive government. Organ Environ 27(2):161–180.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1086026614525641 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lara RJ, Neogi SB, Islam MS, Mahmud ZH, Yamasaki S, Nair GB (2009) Influence of catastrophic climatic events and human waste on Vibrio distribution in the Karnaphuli estuary, Bangladesh. EcoHealth 6(2):279–286.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-009-0257-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lavell A, Oppenheimer M, Diop C, Hess J, Lempert R, Li J et. al., (2012) Climate change: new dimensions in disaster risk, exposure, vulnerability, and resilience. In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL et. al., (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 25–64Google Scholar
  113. Lee HS (2013) Estimation of extreme sea levels along the Bangladesh coast due to storm surge and sea level rise using EEMD and EVA. J Geophys Res Ocean 118(9):4273–4285.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lemos MC, Morehouse BJ (2005) The co-production of science and policy in integrated climate assessments. Glob Environ Chang 15(1):57–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lemos MC, Kirchhoff CJ, Ramprasad V (2012) Narrowing the climate information usability gap. Nat Clim Chang 2(11):789–794.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1614 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lorenz S, Berman R, Dixon J, Lebel S (2014) Time for a systematic review: a response to Bassett and Fogelman’s “Déjà vu or something new? The adaptation concept in the climate change literature”. Geoforum 51:252–255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mahmood R (1997) Impacts of air temperature variations on the boro rice phenology in Bangladesh: implications for irrigation requirements. Agric For Meteorol 84:233–247.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(96)02360-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mahmood R (1998) Air temperature variations and rice productivity in Bangladesh: a comparative study of the performance of the YIELD and the CERES-Rice models. Ecol Model 106:201–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(97)00192-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mahmood R, Meo M, Legates DR, Morrissey ML (2003) The CERES-rice model-based estimates of potential monsoon season rainfed rice productivity in Bangladesh. Prof Geogr 55(2):259–273.  https://doi.org/10.1111/0033-0124.5502013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mahmood R, Legates DR, Meo M (2004) The role of soil water availability in potential rainfed rice productivity in Bangladesh: applications of the CERES-Rice model. Appl Geogr 24(2):139–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2004.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mallick B, Rahaman KR, Vogt J (2011) Coastal livelihood and physical infrastructure in Bangladesh after cyclone Aila. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 16(6):629–648.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-011-9285-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Maniruzzaman M, Talukder MSU, Khan MH, Biswas JC, Nemes A (2015) Validation of the AquaCrop model for irrigated rice production under varied water regimes in Bangladesh. Agric Water Manag 159:331–340.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Martin M, Billah M, Siddiqui T, Abrar C, Black R, Kniveton D (2014) Climate-related migration in rural Bangladesh: a behavioural model. Popul Environ 36(1):85–110.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-014-0207-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Masood M, Takeuchi K (2016) Climate change impacts and its implications on future water resource management in the Meghna Basin. Futures 78-79:1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2016.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mastrandrea MD, Heller NE, Root TL, Schneider SH (2010) Bridging the gap: linking climate-impacts research with adaptation planning and management. Clim Chang 100(1):87–101.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-010-9827-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Matsuda F, Ishimura S, Wagatsuma Y, Higashi T, Hayashi T, Faruque ASG, Sack DA, Nishibuchi M (2008) Prediction of epidemic cholera due to Vibrio cholera O1 in children younger than 10 years using climate data in Bangladesh. Epidemiol Infect 136(1):73–79.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268807008175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. McDowell G, Stephenson E, Ford J (2014) Adaptation to climate change in glaciated mountain regions. Clim Chang 126(1–2):77–91.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1215-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Mcdowell G, Ford J, Jones J (2016) Community-level climate change vulnerability research: trends, progress, and future directions. Environ Res Lett 11(3):033001.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/3/033001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. McNie EC (2007) Reconciling the supply of scientific information with user demands: an analysis of the problem and review of the literature. Environ Sci Pol 10(1):17–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2006.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mirza MMQ (2002) Global warming and changes in the probability of occurrence of floods in Bangladesh and implications. Glob Environ Chang 12(2):127–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(02)00002-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Mirza MMQ (2003) Climate change and extreme weather events: can developing countries adapt? Clim Pol 3(3):233–248.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1469-3062(03)00052-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mirza MMQ, Warrick RA, Ericksen NJ (2003) The implications of climate change on floods of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in Bangladesh. Clim Chang 57(3): 287–318.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022825915791
  133. Molla NA, Mollah KA, Fungladda W, Ramasoot P (2014) Multidisciplinary household environmental factors: influence on DALYs lost in climate refugees community. Environ Dev 9:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2013.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Moser SC (2010) Now more than ever: the need for more societally relevant research on vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Appl Geogr 30(4):464–474.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2009.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Mottaleb KA, Mohanty S, Hoang HTK, Rejesus RM (2013) The effects of natural disasters on farm household income and expenditures: a study on rice farmers in Bangladesh. Agric Syst 121:43–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2013.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Mulrow CD (1994) Rationale for systematic reviews. BMJ 309(6954):597–599 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2541393/pdf/bmj00455-0051.pdf. Accessed 18 May 2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Mynett AE, Vojinovic Z (2009) Hydroinformatics in multi-colours—part red: urban flood and disaster management. J Hydroinf 11:166–180.  https://doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2009.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Nahar N, Blomstedt Y, Wu B, Kandarina I, Trisnantoro L, Kinsman J (2014) Increasing the provision of mental health care for vulnerable, disaster-affected people in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health 14(1):708.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-708 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. NAPA (2005) National adaptation program of action. Ministry of Environment and Forest. Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/napa/ban01.pdf. Accessed 18 May 2015Google Scholar
  140. Nelson DI (2003) Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh. Environ Impact Assess Rev 23(3):323–341.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-9255(02)00102-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Nelson DR, Adger WN, Brown K (2007) Adaptation to environmental change: contributions of a resilience framework. Annu Rev Environ Resour 32(1):395–419.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.32.051807.090348 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Nowreen S, Murshed SB, Islam AKMS, Bhaskaran B, Hasan MA (2014) Changes of rainfall extremes around the haor basin areas of Bangladesh using multi-member ensemble RCM. Theor Appl Climatol 119(1–2):363–377.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-014-1101-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Nury AH, Hasan K, Alam MAB (2017) Comparative study of wavelet-ARIMA and wavelet-ANN models for temperature time series data in northeastern Bangladesh. J King Saudi Uni – Sci 29:47–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2015.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. O’Brien KL, Leichenko RM (2000) Double exposure: assessing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization. Glob Environ Chang 10:221–232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(00)00021-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. O’Brien KL, Leichenko R, Kelkar U, Venema H, Aandahl G, Tompkins H, Javed A, Bhadwal S, Barg S, Nygaard L, West J (2004) Mapping vulnerability to multiple stressors: climate change and globalization in India. Glob Environ Chang 14:303–313.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. O'Brien K, Eriksen S, Nygaard LP, Schjolden A (2007) Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses. Clim Pol 7(1):73–88.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2007.9685639 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ohtomo K, Kobayashi N, Sumi A, Ohtomo N (2010) Relationship of cholera incidence to El Niño and solar activity elucidated by time-series analysis. Epidemiol Infect 138(1):99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268809990203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Ortiz CAC (1994) Sea-level rise and its impact on Bangladesh. Ocean Coast Manag 23(3):249–270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0964-5691(94)90022-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Osbahr H, Twyman C, Adger WN, Thomas DSG (2008) Effective livelihood adaptation to climate change disturbance: scale dimensions of practice in Mozambique. Geoforum 39(6):1951–1964.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2008.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Paprocki K, Huq S (2017) Shrimp and coastal adaptation: on the politics of climate justice. Clim Dev 0:1–3.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2017.1301871 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Parry M (2007) Viewpoint climate change: where should our research priorities be? Glob Environ Chang 11(2001):257–260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(01)00012-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Patwardhan A, Downing T, Leary N, Wilbanks T (2009) Towards an integrated agenda for adaptation research: theory, practice and policy. Strategy paper. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 1(2):219–225.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2009.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Pavel MAA, Chowdhury MA, Mamun MAA (2014) Economic evaluation of floating gardening as a means of adapting to climate change in Bangladesh. Int J Environ Stud 71(3):261–269.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207233.2014.911406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Petticrew M (2003) Why certain systematic reviews reach uncertain conclusions. BMJ 326(7392):756–758.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7392.756 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Polsky C, Neff R, Yarnal B (2007) Building comparable global change vulnerability assessments: the vulnerability scoping diagram. Glob Environ Chang 17:472–485.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Pouliotte J, Smit B, Westerhoff L (2009) Adaptation and development: livelihoods and climate change in Subarnabad, Bangladesh. Clim Dev 1(1):31–46.  https://doi.org/10.3763/cdev.2009.0001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Prasanna V, Subere J, Das DK, Govindarajan S, Yasunari T (2014) Development of daily gridded rainfall dataset over the Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna river basins. Meteorol Appl 21(2):278–293.  https://doi.org/10.1002/met.1327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rahman A (2008) Climate change and its impact on health in Bangladesh. Forum Am Bar Assoc 12(1):16–26 http://ngof.org/wdb_new/sites/default/files/Climate%20change%20and%20its%20Impact%20on%20Health%20in%20Bangladesh.pdf. Accessed 18 November 2015Google Scholar
  159. Rahman MM, Rafiuddin M, Alam MM, Kusunoki S, Kitoh A, Giorgi F (2013) Summer monsoon rainfall scenario over Bangladesh using a high-resolution AGCM. Nat Hazards 69(1):793–807.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0734-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rahman HMT, Hickey GM, Sarker SK (2015) Examining the role of social capital in community collective action for sustainable wetland fisheries in Bangladesh. Wetlands 35(3):487–499.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-015-0635-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rahman M, Islam R, Islam M (2017) Long-term growth decline in Toona ciliata in a moist tropical forest in Bangladesh: impact of global warming. Acta Oecol 80:8–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2017.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rodima-Taylor D, Olwig MF, Chhetri N (2012) Adaptation as innovation, innovation as adaptation: an institutional approach to climate change. Appl Geogr 33(1):107–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.10.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rotberg FJY (2013) Social networks, brokers and climate change adaptation: a Bangladeshi case. J Int Dev 25:599–608.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.2857 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Salmond SW, Holly C (2012) Systematic review as the basis for evidence-based practice. In: Holly C, Salmond SW, Saimbert M (eds) Comprehensive systematic review for advanced nursing practice. Springer, New York, pp 3–12Google Scholar
  165. Sarker MAR, Alam K, Gow J (2012) Exploring the relationship between climate change and rice yield in Bangladesh: an analysis of time series data. Agric Syst 112:11–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2012.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sarker MAR, Alam K, Gow J (2013) How does the variability in aus rice yield respond to climate variables in Bangladesh? J Agron Crop Sci 199:189–194.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jac.12011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sarwar MGM, Woodroffe CD (2013) Rates of shoreline change along the coast of Bangladesh. J Coast Conserv 17(3):515–526.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-013-0251-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Seneviratne SI, Nicholls N, Easterling D, Goodess CM, Kanae S, Kossin J et. al.,(2012) Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL et. al (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press,Cambridge, pp. 109–230Google Scholar
  169. Scoones I (1998) Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis. IDS Work Paper 72, IDS, Brighton. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/3390/Wp72.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 25 January 2015
  170. Shahid S (2010a) Rainfall variability and the trends of wet and dry periods in Bangladesh. Int J Climatol 30(15):2299–2313.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Shahid S (2010b) Probable impacts of climate change on public health in Bangladesh. Asia-Pac J Public Health 22(3):310–319.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539509335499 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Shahid S (2011a) Impact of climate change on irrigation water demand of dry season Boro rice in northwest Bangladesh. Clim Chang 105(3–4):433–453.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-010-9895-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Shahid S (2011b) Trends in extreme rainfall events of Bangladesh. Theor Appl Climatol 104:489–499.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-010-0363-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Simelton E, Fraser EDG, Termansen M, Forster PM, Dougill AJ (2009) Typologies of crop-drought vulnerability: an empirical analysis of the socio-economic factors that influence the sensitivity and resilience to drought of three major food crops in China (1961-2001). Environ Sci Policy 12:438–452.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2008.11.005.
  175. Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16(3):282–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Sohel SI, Akhter S, Ullah H, Haque E, Rana P (2017) Predicting impacts of climate change on forest tree species of Bangladesh: evidence from threatened Dysoxylum binectariferum (Roxb.) Hook.f. ex Bedd. (Meliaceae). IForest 10:154–160.  https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1608-009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sullivan CA (2011) Quantifying water vulnerability: a multi-dimensional approach. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess 25:627.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-010-0426-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sultana F (2010) Living in hazardous waterscapes: gendered vulnerabilities and experiences of floods and disasters. Environ Hazards 9(1):43–53.  https://doi.org/10.3763/ehaz.2010.SI02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Taasoobshirazi G, Wang S (2016) The Performance of the SRMR, RMSEA, CFI, AND TLI: an examination of sample size, path size, and degrees of freedom. J Appl Quant Methods 11(3):31–39 http://www.jaqm.ro/issues/volume-11,issue-3/pdfs/2_GI_SH_.pdf. Accessed 18 May 2017Google Scholar
  180. Temby O, Sandall J, Cooksey R, Hickey GM (2017) Examining the role of trust and informal communication on mutual learning in government: the case of climate change adaptation in New York. Organ Environ 30(1):71–97.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1086026616633254 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Thurlow J, Dorosh P, Yu W (2012) A stochastic simulation approach to estimating the economic impacts of climate change in Bangladesh. Rev Dev Econ 16(3):412–428.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9361.2012.00671.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Tinsley HE, Tinsley DJ (1987) Uses of factor analysis in counseling psychology research. J Couns Psychol 34(4):414–424.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.34.4.414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Tompkins EL, Adger WN, Boyd E, Nicholson-Cole S, Weatherhead K, Arnell N (2010) Observed adaptation to climate change: UK evidence of transition to a well-adapting society. Glob Environ Chang 20(4):627–635.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Turner BL, Kasperson RE, Matson PA, McCarthy JJ, Corell RW, Christensen L, Eckley N, Kasperson JX, Luers A, Martello ML, Polsky C, Pulsipher A, Schiller A (2003) A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100(14):8074–8079.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1231335100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Urwin K, Jordan A (2008) Does public policy support or undermine climate change adaptation? Exploring policy interplay across different scales of governance. Glob Environ Chang 18(1):180–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Wilbanks TJ, Kates RW (1999) Global change in local places: how scale matters. Clim Chang 43(3):601–628.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005418924748 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Younus MAF (2015) Crop adaptation processes to extreme floods in Bangladesh: a case study. Environ Hazards 14(1):36–53.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2014.986041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Younus MAF (2017) Adapting to climate change in the coastal regions of Bangladesh: proposal for the formation of community-based adaptation committees. Environ Hazards 16:21–49.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2016.1211984 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Younus MAF, Harvey N (2014) Economic consequences of failed autonomous adaptation to extreme floods: a case study from Bangladesh. Local Econ 29(1–2):22–37.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269094213515175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • H.M. Tuihedur Rahman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gordon M. Hickey
    • 1
  • James D. Ford
    • 2
  • Malcolm A. Egan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesMcGill University, Macdonald CampusSte-Anne-de-BellevueCanada
  2. 2.Department of Geography, Burnside HallMcGill University, Downtown CampusMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations