Park isolation in anthropogenic landscapes: land change and livelihoods at park boundaries in the African Albertine Rift

Abstract

Landscapes are changing rapidly in regions where rural people live adjacent to protected parks and reserves. This is the case in highland East Africa, where many parks are increasingly isolated in a matrix of small farms and settlements. In this review, we synthesize published findings and extant data sources to assess the processes and outcomes of park isolation, with a regional focus on people’s livelihoods at park boundaries in the Ugandan Albertine Rift. The region maintains exceptionally high rural population density and growth and is classified as a global biodiversity hotspot. In addition to the impacts of increasing numbers of people, our synthesis highlights compounding factors—changing climate, increasing land value and variable tenure, and declining farm yields—that accelerate effects of population growth on park isolation and widespread landscape change. Unpacking these processes at the regional scale identifies outcomes of isolation in the unprotected landscape—high frequency of human-wildlife conflict, potential for zoonotic disease transmission, land and resource competition, and declining wildlife populations in forest fragments. We recommend a strategy for the management of isolated parks that includes augmenting outreach by park authorities and supporting community needs in the human landscape, for example through healthcare services, while also maintaining hard park boundaries through traditional protectionism. Even in cases where conservation refers to biodiversity in isolated parks, landscape strategies must include an understanding of the local livelihood context in order to ensure long-term sustainable biodiversity protection.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. 1.

    We report geographic data from multiple sources. We report population totals and density of district administrative areas from the Ugandan Bureau of Statistics 2015 census (UBOS 2016). We report population density across the extent of the Ugandan Rift (Fig. 2) from SEDAC’s GPW v4. SEDAC data are suited for this purpose because (a) while based on national census data they are resampled at a higher spatial resolution to allow for population estimates within the Rift boundary, which is not a recognized administrative area, and (b) the data product provides temporal resolution that allows for representation at our time period of interest (1995–2015). We also report population density at the borders of parks from WorldPop (Table 1) because these modeled, spatially explicit estimates are produced at relatively high spatial resolution and provide more accurate estimates at the 5-km scale (Stevens et al. 2015). We report future population projections in multiple places in the main text from different sources of the United Nations Social and Economic Affairs Population Division. Finally, we report forest cover and loss data based on the MODIS product and resampled at higher spatial resolution (Hansen et al. 2013). These data also allow for representation of forest change at an appropriate longitudinal scale for our purposes (2000–2013), but they do not accurately represent change in savanna landscapes. The multiple sources are cited in text, figures, and tables.

References

  1. Allen T, Murray KA, Zambrana-Torrelio C, Morse SS, Rondinini C, Di Marco M, Olival KJ, Daszak P (In press) Global correlates of emerging zoonoses: anthropogenic, environmental, and biodiversity risk factors. Nat Communications

  2. Andersson KP, Fleischman F, Jagger P, Luckert M, Meinzen-Dick R, Mwangi E, Ostrom E (2015) Unpacking decentralization: a case study of Uganda’s forestry reforms. Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resources Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM CRSP), USAID

  3. Banana AY, Vogt ND, Bahati J, Gombya-Ssembajjwe WS (2007) Decentralized governance and ecological health: why local institutions fail to moderate deforestation in Mpigi District of Uganda

  4. Brockington D, Igoe J (2006) Eviction for conservation: a global overview. Conserv Soc 4:242–470

    Google Scholar 

  5. Brooks JS, Waylen KA, Borgerhoff Mulder M (2012) How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:21265–21270. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1207141110

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Brooks TM, Hoffman DM, Burgess N, Plumptre A, Williams S, Gereau RE, Mittermeier RA, Stuart S (2004) Eastern afromontane. In: Mittermeier RA, Robles-Gil P, Hoffmann M, Pilgrim JD, Brooks TM, Mittermeier CG, Lamoreux JL, Fonseca G (eds) Hotspots revisited: Earth’s biologically richest and most endangered ecoregions. Cemex, Mexico, pp 241–242

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bryan E, Deressa TT, Gbetibouo GA, Ringler C (2009) Adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia and South Africa: options and constraints. Environ Sci Pol 12:413–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2008.11.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bustamante MMC, Roitman I, Aide TM, Alencar ALO, Aragão L, Asner GP, Barlow J, Berenguer E, Chambers J, Costa MH, Fanin T, Ferreira LG, Ferreira J, Keller M, Magnusson WE, Morales-Barquero L, Morton D, Ometto JPHB, Palace M, Peres CA, Silvério D, Trumbore S, Vieira ICG (2016) Toward an integrated monitoring framework to assess the effects of tropical forest degradation and recovery on carbon stocks and biodiversity. Glob Change Biol 22:92–109. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13087

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Carswell GM (2007) Cultivating success in Uganda: Kigezi farmers and colonial policies. James Currey Publishers

  10. Cernea MM, Schmidt-Soltau K (2006) Poverty risks and national parks: policy issues in conservation and resettlement. World Dev 34:1808–1830. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2006.02.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Chape S, Harrison J, Spalding M, Lysenko I (2005) Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 360:443. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1592

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Chapman CA, Chapman LJ, Struhsaker TT, Zanne AE, Clark CJ, Poulsen JR (2005) A long-term evaluation of fruiting phenology: importance of climate change. J Trop Ecol 21:31–45. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467404001993

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Chapman CA, DeLuycker A, Reyna-Hurtado RA, Serio-Silva JC, Smith TB, Strier KB, Goldberg TL (2016) Safeguarding biodiversity: what is perceived as working, according to the conservation community? Oryx 50:302–307. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605314000738

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Chapman CA, Ghai R, Jacob A, Koojo SM, Reyna-Hurtado R, Rothman JM, Twinomugisha D, Wasserman MD, Goldberg TL (2013) Going, going, gone: a 15-year history of the decline of primates in Forest fragments near Kibale National Park, Uganda. In: Marsh KL, Chapman AC (eds) Primates in fragments: complexity and resilience. Springer New York, New York, NY, pp 89–100

    Google Scholar 

  15. Chapman CA, Lambert JE (2000) Habitat alteration and the conservation of African primates: case study of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Am J Primatol 50:169–185

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Chapman CA, van Bavel B, Boodman C, Ghai RR, Gogarten JF, Hartter J, Mechak LE, Omeja PA, Poonawala S, Tuli D, Goldberg TL (2015) Providing health care to improve community perceptions of protected areas. Oryx J Fauna Preserv Soc 49:636–642. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0030605313001592

  17. CIESEN (2016) Center for International Earth Science Information Network—CIESIN—Columbia University. Gridded population of the world, version 4 (GPWv4). NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Palisades, NY

    Google Scholar 

  18. Coad L, Leverington F, Knights K, Geldmann J, Eassom A, Kapos V, Kingston N, de Lima M, Zamora C, Cuardros I, Nolte C, Burgess ND, Hockings M (2015) Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the global database of protected area management effectiveness. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0281

  19. Cobo JG, Dercon G, Cadisch G (2000) Nutrient balances in African land use systems across different spatial scales: a review of approaches, challenges and progress. Agric Ecosyst Environ 136:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.11.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Crist E, Mora C, Engelman R (2017) The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection. Science 356:260. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal2011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Dak O (1968) A geographical analysis of the distribution of migrants in Uganda. Occasional paper 11. Department of Geography. Makerere University, Kampala

    Google Scholar 

  22. de Lange E, Woodhouse E, Milner-Gulland EJ (2016) Approaches used to evaluate the social impacts of protected areas. Conserv Lett 9:327–333. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12223

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. DeFries R, Hansen A, Newton AC, Hansen MC (2005) Increasing isolation of protected areas in tropical forests over the past twenty years. Ecol Appl 15:19–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. DeFries R, Rosenzweig C (2010) Toward a whole-landscape approach for sustainable land use in the tropics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19627–19632. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011163107

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Dickman AJ (2010) Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human–wildlife conflict. Anim Conserv 13:458–466. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2010.00368.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Diem JE, Hartter J, Salerno J, McIntyre E, Stuart Grandy AS (2017) Comparison of measured multi-decadal rainfall variability with farmers’ perceptions of and responses to seasonal changes in western Uganda. Reg Environ Chang 17:127–1140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-016-0943-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Diem JE, Ryan SJ, Hartter J, Palace MW (2014b) Satellite-based rainfall data reveal a recent drying trend in central equatorial Africa. Clim Chang 126:263–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1217-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Dowhaniuk N (2016) Assessing the impact of industrial oil development, human population growth, and post-conflict regrowth in an African biodiversity hotspot. Master’s thesis. University of New Hampshire

  29. Dowhaniuk N, Hartter J, Ryan SJ, Palace MW, Congalton RG (2017) The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: demographic and social change at murchison falls conservation area, Uganda. Popul Environ. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-017-0287-x

  30. ETOA (2015) Uganda environmental threats and opportunities assessment. ECODIT and the US Agency for International Development

    Google Scholar 

  31. FAO (2012) Harmonized world soil database (version 1.2). Harmonized world soil database (version 1.2). Laxenburg, Austria

    Google Scholar 

  32. Farley C (1996) Smallholder knowledge, soil resource management and land use change in the highlands of southwest Uganda. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Florida

  33. Farr TG, Rosen PA, Caro E, Crippen R, Duren R, Hensley S, Kobrick M, Paller M, Rodriguez E, Roth L, Seal D, Shaffer S, Shimada J, Umland J, Werner M, Oskin M, Burbank D, Alsdorf D (2007) The shuttle radar topography mission. Rev Geophys 45:n/a-n/a. doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2005RG000183

  34. Ferraro PJ, Hanauer MM (2011) Protecting ecosystems and alleviating poverty with parks and reserves: “win-win” or tradeoffs? Environ Resour Econ 48:269–286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-010-9408-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Ferraro PJ, Pressey RL (2015) Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0270

  36. Fisher B (2010) African exception to drivers of deforestation. Nat Geosci 3:375

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Fuda RK, Ryan SJ, Cohen JB, Hartter J, Frair JL (2016) Assessing impacts to primary productivity at the park edge in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda. Ecosphere 7:e01486–n/a. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1486

  38. Geldmann J, Barnes M, Coad L, Craigie ID, Hockings M, Burgess ND (2013) Effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas in reducing habitat loss and population declines. Biol Conserv 161:230–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.02.018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Ghai RR, Simons ND, Chapman CA, Omeja PA, Davies TJ, Ting N, Goldberg TL (2014) Hidden population structure and cross-species transmission of whipworms (Trichuris sp.) in humans and non-human primates in Uganda. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8:e3256. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Gibbs HK, Ruesch AS, Achard F, Clayton MK, Holmgren P, Ramankutty N, Foley JA (2010) Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:16732–16737. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910275107

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Goldberg TL, Gillespie TR, Rwego IB, Wheeler E, Estoff EL, Chapman CA (2007) Patterns of gastrointestinal bacterial exchange between chimpanzees and humans involved in research and tourism in western Uganda. Biol Conserv 135:511–517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.10.048

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Goldberg TL, Paige S, Chapman C (2012) The Kibale EcoHealth Project: exploring connections among human health, animal health, and landscape dynamics in western Uganda. In: Aguirre A, Daszak P (eds) Conservation medicine: applied cases of ecological health. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 452–465

    Google Scholar 

  43. Goldman A, Hartter J, Southworth J, Binford M (2008) The human landscape around the island park: impacts and responses to Kibale National Park. In: Wrangham R, Ross E (eds) Science and conservation in African forests: the benefits of longterm research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  44. Hansen MC, Potapov PV, Moore R, Hancher M, Turubanova SA, Tyukavina A, Thau D, Stehman SV, Goetz SJ, Loveland TR, Kommareddy A, Egorov A, Chini L, Justice CO, Townshend JRG (2013) High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science 342:850. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1244693

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Hartter J (2010) Resource use and ecosystem services in a forest park landscape. Soc Nat Resour 23:207–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920903360372

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Hartter J, Dowhaniuk N, MacKenzie CA, Ryan SJ, Diem JE, Palace MW, Chapman CA (2016) Perceptions of risk in communities near parks in an African biodiversity hotspot. Ambio 45:692–705. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0775-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Hartter J, Goldman A (2011) Local responses to a forest park in western Uganda: alternate narratives on fortress conservation. Oryx 45:60–68. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605310000141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Hartter J, Ryan S, MacKenzie C, Goldman A, Dowhaniuk N, Palace M, Diem J, Chapman C (2015) Now there is no land: a story of ethnic migration in a protected area landscape in western Uganda. Popul Environ 36:452–479. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-014-0227-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Hartter J, Ryan SJ (2010) Top-down or bottom-up?: Decentralization, natural resource management, and usufruct rights in the forests and wetlands of western Uganda. Land Use Policy 27:815–826. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.11.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Hartter J, Ryan SJ, Southworth J, Chapman CA (2011) Landscapes as continuous entities: forest disturbance and recovery in the Albertine Rift landscape. Landsc Ecol 26:877–890. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-011-9616-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Hartter J, Solomon J, Ryan SJ, Jacobson SK, Goldman ABE (2014) Contrasting perceptions of ecosystem services of an African forest park. Environ Conserv 41:330–340. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892914000071

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Hartter J, Southworth J (2009) Dwindling resources and fragmentation of landscapes around parks: wetlands and forest fragments around Kibale National Park, Uganda. Landsc Ecol 24:643–656

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Hsiao SS, Ross C, Hill CM, Wallace GE (2013) Crop-raiding deterrents around Budongo Forest Reserve: an evaluation through farmer actions and perceptions. Oryx 47:569–577. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605312000853

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Kizza F (2014) State of conservation periodic report for Rwenzori Mountains National Park World Heritage Property-Uganda. Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kasese

    Google Scholar 

  55. Laurance WF, Laurance WF, Carolina Useche D, Rendeiro J, Kalka M, Bradshaw CJA, Sloan SP, Laurance SG, Campbell M, Abernethy K, Alvarez P, Arroyo-Rodriguez V, Ashton P, Benitez-Malvido J, Blom A, Bobo KS, Cannon CH, Cao M, Carroll R, Chapman C, Coates R, Cords M, Danielsen F, De Dijn B, Dinerstein E, Donnelly MA, Edwards D, Edwards F, Farwig N, Fashing P, Forget P-M, Foster M, Gale G, Harris D, Harrison R, Hart J, Karpanty S, John Kress W, Krishnaswamy J, Logsdon W, Lovett J, Magnusson W, Maisels F, Marshall AR, McClearn D, Mudappa D, Nielsen MR, Pearson R, Pitman N, van der Ploeg J, Plumptre A, Poulsen J, Quesada M, Rainey H, Robinson D, Roetgers C, Rovero F, Scatena F, Schulze C, Sheil D, Struhsaker T, Terborgh J, Thomas D, Timm R, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona J, Vasudevan K, Joseph Wright S, Carlos Arias-G J, Arroyo L, Ashton M, Auzel P, Babaasa D, Babweteera F, Baker P, Banki O, Bass M, Bila-Isia I, Blake S, Brockelman W, Brokaw N, Bruhl CA, Bunyavejchewin S, Chao J-T, Chave J, Chellam R, Clark CJ, Clavijo J, Congdon R, Corlett R, Dattaraja HS, Dave C, Davies G, de Mello Beisiegel B, de Nazare Paes da Silva R, Di Fiore A, Diesmos A, Dirzo R, Doran-Sheehy D, Eaton M, Emmons L, Estrada A, Ewango C, Fedigan L, Feer F, Fruth B, Giacalone Willis J, Goodale U, Goodman S, Guix JC, Guthiga P, Haber W, Hamer K, Herbinger I, Hill J, Huang Z, Fang Sun I, Ickes K, Itoh A, Ivanauskas N, Jackes B, Janovec J, Janzen D, Jiangming M, Jin C, Jones T, Justiniano H, Kalko E, Kasangaki A, Killeen T, King H, Klop E, Knott C, Kone I, Kudavidanage E, Lahoz da Silva Ribeiro J, Lattke J, Laval R, Lawton R, Leal M, Leighton M, Lentino M, Leonel C, Lindsell J, Ling-Ling L, Eduard Linsenmair K, Losos E, Lugo A, Lwanga J, Mack AL, Martins M, Scott McGraw W, McNab R, Montag L, Myers Thompson J, Nabe-Nielsen J, Nakagawa M, Nepal S, Norconk M, Novotny V, O’Donnell S, Opiang M, Ouboter P, Parker K, Parthasarathy N, Pisciotta K, Prawiradilaga D, Pringle C, Rajathurai S, Reichard U, Reinartz G, Renton K, Reynolds G, Reynolds V, Riley E, Rodel M-O, Rothman J, Round P, Sakai S, Sanaiotti T, Savini T, Schaab G, Seidensticker J, Siaka A, Silman MR, Smith TB, de Almeida SS, Sodhi N, Stanford C, Stewart K, Stokes E, Stoner KE, Sukumar R, Surbeck M, Tobler M, Tscharntke T, Turkalo A, Umapathy G, van Weerd M, Vega Rivera J, Venkataraman M, Venn L, Verea C, Volkmer de Castilho C, Waltert M, Wang B, Watts D, Weber W, West P, Whitacre D, Whitney K, Wilkie D, Williams S, Wright DD, Wright P, Xiankai L, Yonzon P, Zamzani F (2012) Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. Nature 489:290–294. doi: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11318.html#supplementary-information

  56. Laurance WF, Peletier-Jellema A, Geenen B, Koster H, Verweij P, Van Dijck P, Lovejoy TE, Schleicher J, Van Kuijk M (2015) Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion. Curr Biol 25:R259–R262. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.02.050

  57. Lewis SL, Edwards DP, Galbraith D (2015) Increasing human dominance of tropical forests. Science 349:827. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9932

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Liberati MR, Rittenhouse CD, Vokoun JC (2016) Beyond protection: expanding “conservation opportunity” to redefine conservation planning in the 21st century. J Environ Manage 183, Part 1:33–40. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.041

  59. Lloyd CB, Kaufman CE, Hewett P (2000) The spread of primary schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for fertility change. Popul Dev Rev 26:483–515

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. L’Roe J, Naughton-Treves L (2017) Forest edges in western Uganda: from refuge for the poor to zone of investment. For Policy Econ. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2016.12.011

  61. MacKenzie CA (2012a) Accruing benefit or loss from a protected area: location matters. Ecol Econ 76:119–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.02.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. MacKenzie CA (2012b) Trenches like fences make good neighbours: revenue sharing around Kibale National Park, Uganda. J Nat Conserv 20:92–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2011.08.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Mackenzie CA, Ahabyona P (2012) Elephants in the garden: financial and social costs of crop raiding. Ecol Econ 75:72–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. MacKenzie CA, Chapman CA, Sengupta R (2012) Spatial patterns of illegal resource extraction in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Environ Conserv 39:38–50. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892911000282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. MacKenzie CA, Hartter J (2013) Demand and proximity: drivers of illegal forest resource extraction. Oryx 47:288–297. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605312000026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. MacKenzie CA, Sengupta RR, Kaoser R (2015) Chasing baboons or attending class: protected areas and childhood education in Uganda. Environ Conserv 42:373–383. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892915000120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. MacKenzie CA, Salerno J, Hartter J, Chapman CA, Reyna R, Tumusiime DM, Drake M (2017a) Changing perceptions of protected area benefits and problems around Kibale National Park, Uganda. J Environ Manag 200:217–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.078

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. MacKenzie C, Fuda R, Ryan S, Hartter J (2017b) Drilling through conservation policy: oil exploration in Murchison Falls Protected Area, Uganda. Conserv Soc 15:322–333. https://doi.org/10.4103/cs.cs_16_105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Maidment RI, Allan RP, Black E (2015) Recent observed and simulated changes in precipitation over Africa. Geophys Res Lett 42:8155–8164. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065765

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Matsumoto T, Kijima Y, Yamano T (2006) The role of local nonfarm activities and migration in reducing poverty: evidence from Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda. Agric Econ 35:449–458. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2006.00190.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Milder JC, Hart AK, Dobie P, Minai J, Zaleski C (2014) Integrated landscape initiatives for African agriculture, development, and conservation: a region-wide assessment. World Dev 54:68–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Mugume S, Isabirye-Basuta G, Otali E, Reyna-Hurtado R, Chapman CA (2015) How do human activities influence the status and distribution of terrestrial mammals in forest reserves? J Mammal 96:998–1004. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyv104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858. doi: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v403/n6772/suppinfo/403853a0_S1.html

  74. Naughton-Treves L (1997) Farming the forest edge: vulnerable places and people around Kibale National Park, Uganda. Geogr Rev 87:27–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1931-0846.1997.tb00058.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Naughton-Treves L, Alix-Garcia J, Chapman CA (2011) Lessons about parks and poverty from a decade of forest loss and economic growth around Kibale National Park, Uganda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13919–13924. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1013332108

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Naughton-Treves L, Holland MB, Brandon K (2005) The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:219–252. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.164507

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Naughton-Treves L, Kammen DM, Chapman C (2007) Burning biodiversity: woody biomass use by commercial and subsistence groups in western Uganda’s forests. Biol Conserv 134:232–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.08.020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Nelson A, Chomitz KM (2011) Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods. Plos One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722

  79. NEMA (2007) State of the environment report 2006–2007. National Environment Management Authority, Kampala

    Google Scholar 

  80. Newmark WD (2008) Isolation of African protected areas. Front Ecol Environ 6:321–328. https://doi.org/10.1890/070003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Nicholson SE, Grist JP (2003) The seasonal evolution of the atmospheric circulation over West Africa and equatorial Africa. J Clim 16:1013–1030. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016%3C1013:TSEOTA%3E2.0.CO;2

  82. Novella NS, Thiaw WM (2012) African rainfall climatology version 2 for famine early warning systems. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 52:588–606. https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0238.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Omeja PA, Lawes MJ, Corriveau A, Valenta K, Sarkar D, Paim FP, Chapman CA (2016) Recovery of tree and mammal communities during large-scale forest regeneration in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Biotropica 48:770–779. https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12360

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Onderdonk DA, Chapman CA (2000) Coping with forest fragmentation: the primates of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Int J Primatol 21:587–611. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005509119693

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. PEPD (2014) Petroleum discoveries in the Albertine Graben. Ugandan Petroleum Exploration and Production Department

    Google Scholar 

  86. Place F, Otsuka K (2002) Land tenure systems and their impacts on agricultural investments and productivity in Uganda. J Dev Stud 38:105–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220380412331322601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Plumptre AJ, Davenport TRB, Behangana M, Kityo R, Eilu G, Ssegawa P, Ewango C, Meirte D, Kahindo C, Herremans M, Peterhans JK, Pilgrim JD, Wilson M, Languy M, Moyer D (2007) The biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biol Conserv 134:178–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.08.021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Purseglove JW (1946) Land use in the over-populated areas of Kabale, Kigezi District, Uganda. East Afr Agric J 12:3–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/03670074.1946.11664517

    Google Scholar 

  89. Purseglove JW (1950) Kigezi resettlement. Uganda J 14:139–152

    Google Scholar 

  90. Reyna-Hurtado R, Tumukunde A, Chapman CA, Rojas E, Sanvicente M, Sengupta R, Calmé S (2014) On the track of the Giant Forest Hog in Kibale National Park, Uganda: a preliminary report on studying the species. Suiform Sound 38

  91. Robbins MM, Roy J, Wright E, Kato R, Kabano P, Basabose A, Tibenda E, Vigilant L, Gray M (2012) Bwindi mountain gorilla census 2011. Uganda Wildlife Authority

    Google Scholar 

  92. Rwego IB, Isabirye-Basuta G, Gillespie TR, Goldberg TL (2008) Gastrointestinal bacterial transmission among humans, mountain gorillas, and livestock in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Conserv Biol 22:1600–1607. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01018.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Ryan SJ, Southworth J, Hartter J, Dowhaniuk N, Fuda RK, Diem JE (2015) Household level influences on fragmentation in an African park landscape. Appl Geogr 58:18–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.01.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Ryan SJ, Palace MW, Hartter J, Diem JE, Chapman CA, Southworth J (2017) Population pressure and global markets drive a decade of forest cover change in Africa’s Albertine Rift. Appl Geogr 81:52–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2017.02.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Salerno J, Borgerhoff Mulder M, Grote MN, Ghiselli M, Packer C (2016) Household livelihoods and conflict with wildlife in community-based conservation areas across northern Tanzania. Oryx 50:702–712. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605315000393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Salerno J, Mwalyoyo J, Caro T, Fitzherbert E, Mulder MB (2017a) The consequences of internal migration in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study. Bioscience 67:664–671. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix041

  97. Salerno J, Ross N, Ghai RR, Mahero M, Travis DA, Gillespie TR, Hartter J (2017b) Human-wildlife interactions predict febrile illness in park landscapes of western Uganda. EcoHealth. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-017-1286-1

  98. Sayer J (2009) Reconciling conservation and development: are landscapes the answer? Biotropica 41:649–652. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00575.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Seiferling IS, Proulx R, Peres-Neto PR, Fahrig L, Messier C (2012) Measuring protected-area isolation and correlations of isolation with land-use intensity and protection status. Conserv Biol 26:610–618. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01674.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Stevens FR, Gaughan AE, Linard C, Tatem AJ (2015) Disaggregating census data for population mapping using random forests with remotely-sensed and ancillary data. PLoS One 10:e0107042. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107042

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Struhsaker TT (1981) Forest and primate conservation in East Africa. Afr J Ecol 19:99–114. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1981.tb00655.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Suich H, Howe C, Mace G (2015) Ecosystem services and poverty alleviation: a review of the empirical links. Ecosyst Serv 12:137–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.02.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Sunderlin WD, Angelsen A, Belcher B, Burgers P, Nasi R, Santoso L, Wunder S (2005) Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: an overview. World Dev 33:1383–1402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.10.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Twongyirwe R, Bithell M, Richards KS, Rees WG (2015) Three decades of forest cover change in Uganda’s Northern Albertine Rift landscape. Land Use Policy 49:236–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.07.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. UBOS (2016) Uganda Bureau of Statistics National Population and Housing Census 2014. Kampala

    Google Scholar 

  106. United Nations (2015) World population projected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050. Department of Economic and Social Affairs http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/news/population/2015-report.html. Accessed: 29 July 2015

  107. United Nations (2017) World population prospects: the 2017 revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division

  108. UWA (2012a) Murchison Falls National Park, Karuma Wildlife Reserve & Bugungu Wildlife Reserve (Murchison falls protected area) general management plan 2012–2022. Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala

    Google Scholar 

  109. UWA (2012b) Queen Elizabeth National Park, Kyambura Wildlife Reserve, & Kigezi Wildlife Reserve general management plan 2011–2021. Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala

    Google Scholar 

  110. UWA (2013) Murchison Falls national protected area general management plan, 2012–2022. Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala

    Google Scholar 

  111. UWA (2014a) Bwindi Impenetrable National Park general management plan. Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala

    Google Scholar 

  112. UWA (2014b) Mgahinga Gorilla National Park management plan, 2014–2024. Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala

    Google Scholar 

  113. UWA (2015) Kibale National Park management plan, 2015–2025. Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala

    Google Scholar 

  114. Vira B, Wildburger C, Mansourian S (2015) Forests, trees and landscapes for food security and nutrition. International Union of Forest Research Organizations, Vienna

    Google Scholar 

  115. West P, Igoe J, Brockington D (2006) Parks and peoples: the social impact of protected areas. Annu Rev Anthropol 35:251–277. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.35.081705.123308

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Wheeler CE, Omeja PA, Chapman CA, Glipin M, Tumwesigye C, Lewis SL (2016) Carbon sequestration and biodiversity following 18 years of active tropical forest restoration. For Ecol Manag 373:44–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.04.025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Williams AP, Funk C (2011) A westward extension of the warm pool leads to a westward extension of the Walker circulation, drying eastern Africa. Clim Dyn 37:2417–2435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0984-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Major support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation (1114977) and the National Geographic Society Committee for Research and Exploration. We are grateful to our Ugandan collaborators and to households participating in the field research. We also thank the Uganda Wildlife Authority, Uganda National Council for Science and Technology, and many local officials who facilitated the research.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joel Hartter.

Additional information

Editor: Peter Verburg.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Salerno, J., Chapman, C.A., Diem, J.E. et al. Park isolation in anthropogenic landscapes: land change and livelihoods at park boundaries in the African Albertine Rift. Reg Environ Change 18, 913–928 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-017-1250-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Protected areas
  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Livelihoods
  • Climate change
  • Ecosystem services
  • Deforestation