Advertisement

Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 1673–1685 | Cite as

An empirically tested overlap between indigenous and scientific knowledge of a changing climate in Bolivian Amazonia

  • Álvaro Fernández-LlamazaresEmail author
  • Raquel Amaral Garcia
  • Isabel Díaz-Reviriego
  • Mar Cabeza
  • Aili Pyhälä
  • Victoria Reyes-García
Original Article

Abstract

Existing climate data for Bolivian Amazonia rely on observations from a few sparse weather stations, interpolated on coarse-resolution grids. At the same time, the region hosts numerous indigenous groups with rich knowledge systems that are hitherto untapped in the quest to understand local climate change. Drawing on an empirical dataset of climate change observations by an Amazonian native society, we assess the potential use of indigenous knowledge for complementing available climate data. We find indigenous observations to be robustly associated with local station data for climatic changes over the last five decades. By contrast, there are discrepancies between gridded climate data and both indigenous observations and local station observations. Indigenous knowledge can be instrumental to enhance our understanding of local climate in data-deficient regions. Indigenous observations offer a tool to ground-truth gridded descriptions of climatic changes, thereby making adaptation strategies more robust at local scales. We contend that the use of indigenous knowledge could help to assist the climate interpolation process and address the prevailing uncertainties in local assessments of climate change.

Keywords

Climate data Ethnoclimatology Ground-truthing Indigenous observations Interpolation Local environmental knowledge 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement Nr. FP7-261971-LEK to V. R.-G. M.C., Á.F.-LL. and A.P. were also supported by the Academy of Finland (Grant Agreements Nrs. 292765 and 284601), Á.F.-LL. by the Finnish Centre for International Mobility (CIMO) and R.A.G. by the South African National Biodiversity Institute and the National Research Foundation of South Africa. We thank all the Tsimane’ who shared their knowledge with us, the Gran Consejo Tsimane’ and CBIDSI for all their support, V. Cuata, S. Fraixedas, S. Huditz, P. Pache, M. Pache, and I.V. Sánchez for all their help during fieldwork, J. Nyman and P. Bottazzi for cartographic assistance, and N. Font, T. Huanca, B. Martín-López, A. Rosell-Melé, M. Tengö, T. Thornton, and two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments and suggestions to previous versions of the manuscript. We acknowledge the Servicio Nacional de Hidrología y Meteorología of Bolivia (SENAHMI) and the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) for providing climate data. Funding was provided by Biotieteiden ja Ympäristön Tutkimuksen Toimikunta (Grant Nrs. 250444 and 257686).

Supplementary material

10113_2017_1125_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1456 kb)

References

  1. Adger WN, Arnell NW, Tompkins EL (2005) Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Glob Environ Chang 15:77–86. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander C, Bynum N, Johnson E, King U, Mustonen T, Neofotis P, Oettle N, Rosenzweig C, Sakakibara C, Shadrin V, Vicarelli M, Waterhouse J, Weeks B (2011) Linking indigenous and scientific knowledge of climate change. Bioscience 61:477–484. doi: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.6.10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armitage D, Berkes F, Dale A, Kocho-Schellenberg E, Patton E (2011) Co-management and the co-production of knowledge: learning to adapt in Canada’s Arctic. Glob Environ Chang 2:995–1004. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes J, Dove M, Lahsen M, Mathews A, McElwee P, McIntosh R, Moore F, O’Reilly J, Orlove B, Puri R, Weiss H, Yager K (2013) Contribution of anthropology to the study of climate change. Nat Clim Chang 3:541–544. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1775 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berkes F (2009) Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. J Environ Manag 90:1692–1702. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (2000) Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecol Appl 10:1251–1262. doi: 10.2307/2641280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bindoff NL, Stott PA, AchutaRao KM, Allen MR, Gillett N, Gutzler D, Hansingo K, Hegerl G, Hu Y, Jain S, Mokhov II, Overland J, Perlwitz J, Sebbari R, Zhang X (2013) Detection and Attribution of climate change: from global to regional. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 867–952Google Scholar
  8. Cámara-Leret R, Paniagua-Zambrana N, Balslev H, Macía MJ (2014) Ethnobotanical knowledge is vastly under-documented in Northwestern South America. PLoS ONE 9:e85794. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085794 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carslaw DC, Ropkins K (2012) openair: an R package for air quality data analysis. Environ Modell Softw 27–28:52–61. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chaudhary P, Bawa KS (2011) Local perceptions of climate change validated by scientific evidence in the Himalayas. Biol Lett-UK 11:767–770. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen J, Brissette FP, Leconte R (2011) Uncertainty of downscaling method in quantifying the impact of climate change on hydrology. J Hydrol 401:190–202. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.02.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Comberti C, Thornton TJ, de Echeverria VW, Patterson T (2015) Ecosystem services or services to ecosystems? Valuing cultivation and reciprocal relationships between humans and ecosystems. Glob Environ Chang 34:247–262. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Couzin J (2007) Opening the doors to native knowledge. Science 315:1518–1519. doi: 10.1126/science.315.5818.1518 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cruz-Burga Z, Reyes-García V, Nova JA, Paneque-Gálvez J, Luz AC (2013) Uso de Territorio e Integración a la Economía de Mercado. Estudio de Caso en la Amazonía Boliviana. Natura@Economía 1:105–121Google Scholar
  15. Davis A, Wagner JR (2003) Who knows? On the importance of identifying “experts” when researching local ecological knowledge. Hum Ecol 31:463–489. doi: 10.1023/A:1025075923297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Espinoza-Villar JC, Ronchail J, Guyot JL, Cochonneau G, Naziano F, Lavado W, De Oliveira E, Pombosa R, Vauchel P (2009) Spatio-temporal rainfall variability in the Amazon basin countries (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Ecuador). Int J Climatol 29:1574–1594. doi: 10.1002/joc.1791 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fazey I, Fazey JA, Fazey DMA (2005) Learning more effectively from experience. Ecol Soc 10(2):4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fernández M, Hamilton H, Kueppers LM (2013) Characterizing uncertainty in species distribution models derived from interpolated weather station data. Ecosphere 4:61. doi: 10.1890/ES13-00049.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fernández-Llamazares Á, Méndez-López ME, Díaz-Reviriego I, McBride MF, Pyhälä A, Rosell-Melé A, Reyes-García V (2015a) Links between media communication and local perceptions of climate change in an indigenous society. Clim Chang 131:307–320. doi: 10.1007/s10584-015-1381-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fernández-Llamazares Á, Díaz-Reviriego I, Luz AC, Cabeza M, Pyhälä A, Reyes-García V (2015b) Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of local environmental knowledge. Glob Environ Chang 31:272–284. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fernández-Llamazares Á, Díaz-Reviriego I, Guèze M, Cabeza M, Pyhälä A, Reyes-García V (2016) Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. Ecol Soc 21(1):2. doi: 10.5751/ES-08092-210102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fernández-Llamazares Á, Díaz-Reviriego I, Reyes-García V (2017) Defaunation through the eyes of the Tsimane’. In: Reyes-García V, Pyhälä A (eds) Hunter-gatherers in a changing world. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 77–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Flato G, Marotzke J, Abiodun B, Braconnot P, Chou SC, Collins W, Cox P, Driouech F, Emori S, Eyring V, Forest C, Glecker P, Guilyardi E, Jakob C, Kattsov V, Reason C, Rummukainen M (2013) Evaluation of climate models. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 741–866Google Scholar
  24. Ford JD, McDowell G, Pearce T (2015) The adaptation challenge in the Arctic. Nat Clim Chang 5:1046–1053. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2723 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ford JD, Cameron L, Rubis J, Maillet M, Nakashima D, Willox AC, Pearce T (2016) Including indigenous knowledge and experience in IPCC assessment reports. Nat Clim Chang 6:349–353. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2954 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fowler HJ, Blenkinsop S, Tebaldi C (2007) Linking climate change modelling to impact studies: recent advances in downscaling techniques for hydrological modelling. Int J Climatol 27:1547–1578. doi: 10.1002/joc.1556 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gagnon CA, Berteaux D (2009) Integrating traditional ecological knowledge and ecological science: a question of scale. Ecol Soc 14(2):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Garcia RA, Cabeza M, Rahbek C, Araújo MB (2014) Multiple dimensions of climate change and their implications for biodiversity. Science 344:1247579. doi: 10.1126/science.1247579 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gómez-Baggethun E, Reyes-García V (2013) Reinterpreting change in traditional ecological knowledge. Hum Ecol 41:643–647. doi: 10.1007/s10745-013-9577-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gómez-Baggethun E, Corbera E, Reyes-García V (2013) Traditional ecological knowledge and global environmental change: research findings and policy implications. Ecol Soc 18(4):72. doi: 10.5751/ES-06288-180472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harris I, Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Lister DH (2014) Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations—the CRU TS3.10 Dataset. Int J Climatol 34:623–642. doi: 10.1002/joc.3711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hawkins E, Sutton R (2009) The potential to narrow uncertainty in regional climate predictions. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 90:1095–1107. doi: 10.1175/2009BAMS2607.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Herman-Mercer NM, Matkin E, Laituri MJ, Toohey RC, Massey M, Elder K, Schuster PF, Mutter EA (2016) Changing times, changing stories: generational differences in climate change perspectives from four remote indigenous communities in subarctic. Ecol Soc 21(3):28. doi: 10.5751/ES-08463-210328 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol 25:1965–1978. doi: 10.1002/joc.1276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hopping KA, Yangzong C, Klein JA (2016) Local knowledge production, transmission, and the importance of village leaders in a network of Tibetan pastoralists coping with environmental change. Ecol Soc 21(1):25. doi: 10.5751/ES-08009-210125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Houde N (2007) The six faces of traditional ecological knowledge: challenges for Canadian co-management arrangements. Ecol Soc 12(2):34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huanca T (2008) Tsimane’ Oral Tradition, Landscape and Identity in Tropical Forest. Imprenta Wagui, La PazGoogle Scholar
  38. Hulme M (2011) Meet the humanities. Nat Clim Chang 1:177–179. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huntington HP (2011) Arctic science: the local perspective. Nature 478:182–183. doi: 10.1038/478182a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. INE, Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2012) Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2012. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, La PazGoogle Scholar
  41. Janif SZ, Nunn PD, Geraghty P, Aalbersberg W, Thomas FR, Camilakeba M (2016) Value of traditional oral narratives in building climate-change resilience: insights from rural communities in Fiji. Ecol Soc 21(2):7. doi: 10.5751/ES-08100-210207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Joseph R, Smith TM, Sapiano MRP, Ferraro RR (2009) A new high-resolution satellite-derived precipitation dataset for climate studies. J Hydrometeorol 10:935–952. doi: 10.1175/2009JHM1096.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kay AL, Davis HN, Bell VA, Jones RG (2009) Comparison of uncertainty sources for climate change impacts: flood frequency in England. Clim Chang 92:41–63. doi: 10.1007/s10584-008-9471-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Klein J, Hopping KA, Yeh ET, Nyima Y, Boone RB, Galvin KA (2014) Unexpected climate impacts on the Tibetan Plateau: local and scientific knowledge in findings of delayed summer. Glob Environ Chang 28:141–152. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.03.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Koster J, Bruno O, Burns JL (2016) Wisdom of the elders? Ethnobiological knowledge across the lifespan. Curr Anthropol 57(1):113–121. doi: 10.1086/684645 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. LEK Project (2015) The adaptive nature of culture. http://icta.uab.cat/Etnoecologia/lek. Accessed 9 Oct 2015
  47. Maffi L (2005) Linguistic, cultural and biological diversity. Annu Rev Anthropol 29:599–617. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120437 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mahli Y, Roberts JT, Betts RA, Killeen TJ, Li W, Nobre CA (2008) Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science 319:169–172. doi: 10.1126/science.1146961 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maraun D, Wetterhall F, Ireson AM, Chandler RE, Kendon EJ, Widmann M, Brienen S, Rust HW, Sauter T, Themeßl M, Venema VKC, Chun KP, Goodess CM, Jones RG, Onof C, Vrac M, Thiele-Eich I (2010) Precipitation downscaling under climate change: recent developments to bridge the gap between dynamical models and the end user. Rev Geophys 48:RG3003. doi: 10.1029/2009RG000314
  50. Marengo JA, Rusticucci M, Penalba O, Renom M (2009) An intercomparison of observed and simulated extreme rainfall and temperature events during the last half of the twentieth century: part 2: historical trends. Clim Chang 98:509–529. doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9743-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marin A (2010) Riders under storms: contributions of nomadic herders’ observations to analysing climate change in Mongolia. Glob Environ Chang 20:162–176. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marin A, Berkes F (2012) Local people’s accounts of climate change: to what extent are they influenced by the media? WIREs Clim Chang 4:1–8. doi: 10.1002/wcc.199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mistry J, Berardi A (2016) Bridging indigenous and scientific knowledge. Science 352:1274–1275. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mitchell TD, Jones PD (2005) An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. Int J Climatol 25:693–712. doi: 10.1002/joc.1181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Monastersky R (2009) The social pole? Nature 457:1077–1078. doi: 10.1038/4571077a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Muller RA, Wurtele J, Rohde R, Jacobsen R, Perlmutter S, Rohde R, Rosenfeld A, Wickham C, Wurtele J (2013) Earth atmospheric land surface temperature and station quality in the contiguous United States. Geoinform Geostat Overv 1:3Google Scholar
  57. New M, Hulme M, Jones P (1999) Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part I: development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. J Clim 12:829–856. doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. New M, Hulme M, Jones P (2000) Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part II: development of 1901–96 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate. J Clim 13:2217–2238. doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. New M, Lister D, Hulme M, Makin I (2002) A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas. Clim Res 21:1–25. doi: 10.3354/cr021001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Niang I, Ruppel OC, Abdrabo MA, Essel A, Lennard C, Padgham J, Urquhart P (2014) Africa. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 775–791Google Scholar
  61. Orlove B, Roncoli C, Kabugo M, Majugu A (2010) Indigenous climate knowledge in southern Uganda: the multiple components of a dynamic regional system. Clim Chang 100:243–265. doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9586-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pan Y, Wei G, Cunningham AA, Li S, Chen S, Milner-Gulland EJ, Turvey ST (2016) Using local ecological knowledge to assess the status of the critically-endangered Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus in Guizhou Province, China. Oryx 50:257–264. doi: 10.1017/S0030605314000830 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Potter KA, Arthur Woods H, Pincebourde S (2013) Microclimatic challenges in global change biology. Glob Chang Biol 19:2932–2939. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12257 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pyhälä A, Fernández-Llamazares Á, Lehvävirta H, Byg A, Ruiz-Mallén I, Salpeteur M, Thornton TF (2016) Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings and explanations. Ecol Soc 21(3):25. doi: 10.5751/ES-08482-210325 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. R Development Core Team, R (2010) A language and environment for statistical computing. http://www.R-project.org. Accessed 20 April 2015
  66. Raymond CM, Fazey I, Reed MS, Stringer LC, Robinson GM, Evely AC (2010) Integrating local and scientific knowledge for environmental management. J Environ Manag 91:1766–1777. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.03.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Reyes-García V, Godoy RA, Vadez V, Apaza L, Byron E, Huanca T, Leonard WR, Pérez E, Wilkie D (2003) Ethnobotanical knowledge shared widely among Tsimane’ Amerindians Bolivia. Science 299:1707. doi: 10.1126/science.1080274 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reyes-García V, Guèze M, Luz AC, Paneque-Gálvez J, Macía MJ, Orta-Martínez M, Pino J, Rubio-Campillo X (2013) Evidence of traditional knowledge loss among a contemporary indigenous society. Evol Hum Behav 34:249–257. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reyes-García V, Fernández-Llamazares Á, Guèze M, Garcés A, Mallo M, Vila-Gómez M, Vilaseca M (2015) Local indicators of climate change: the potential contribution of local knowledge to climate research. WIREs Clim Chang 7:109–124. doi: 10.1002/wcc.374 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Reyes-García V, Díaz-Reviriego I, Duda R, Fernández-Llamazares Á, Gallois S, Guèze M, Napitupulu T, Pyhälä A (2016) Peer evaluation can reliably measure local ecological knowledge. Field Method 28:345–362. doi: 10.1177/1525822X16629912 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rosenzweig C, Neofotis P (2013) Detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change impacts. WIREs Clim Chang 4:121–150. doi: 10.1002/wcc.209 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rudiak-Gould P (2014) The influence of science communication on indigenous climate change perception: theoretical and practical implications. Hum Ecol 42:75–86. doi: 10.1007/s10745-013-9605-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ruiz-Mallén I, Fernández-Llamazares Á, Reyes-García V (2016) Unravelling local adaptive capacity to climate change in the Bolivian Amazon: the interlinkages between assets, conservation and markets. Clim Chang. doi: 10.1007/s10584-016-1831-x Google Scholar
  74. Satyamurty P, de Castro AA, Tota J, da Silva Gularte E, Manzi AO (2010) Rainfall trends in the Brazilian Amazon Basin in the past eight decades. Theor Appl Climatol 99:139–148. doi: 10.1007/s00704-009-0133-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Savo V, Lepofsky D, Benner JP, Kohfeld KE, Bailey J, Lertzman K (2016) Observations of climate change among subsistence-oriented communities around the world. Nat Clim Chang 6:462–473. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2958 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Simons DJ, Rensink RA (2005) Change blindness: past, present and future. Trends Cogn Sci 9:16–20. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith K (2011) An army of observers. Nat Clim Chang 1:79–82. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Soria-Auza RW (2010) Impact of the quality of climate models for modelling species occurrences in countries with poor climatic documentation: a case study from Bolivia. Ecol Model 221:1221–1229. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. StataCorp (2011) Stata statistical software: release 12. College Station, TexasGoogle Scholar
  80. Tengö M, Brondizio S, Elmqvist T, Malmer P, Spierenburg M (2014) Connecting diverse knowledge systems for enhanced ecosystem governance: the multiple evidence base approach. Ambio 43:579–591. doi: 10.1007/s13280-014-0501-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thornton TF, Manasfi N (2010) Adaptation—genuine and spurious: demystifying adaptation processes in relation to climate change. Environ Soc Adv Res 1:132–155. doi: 10.3167/ares.2010.010107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vedwan N, Rhoades RE (2001) Climate change in the Western Himalayas of India: a study of local perceptions and response. Clim Res 19:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Whipple D (2008) Breaking the ice. Nat Rep Clim Chang 2:54–55. doi: 10.1038/climate.2008.38 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yeh ET (2015) ‘How can experience of local residents be “knowledge”?’ Challenges in interdisciplinary climate change research. Area 48:34–40. doi: 10.1111/area.12189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zou L, Zhou T, Li L, Zhang J (2010) East China summer rainfall variability of 1958–2000: dynamical downscaling with a variable resolution AGCM. J Clim 23:6394–6408. doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3689.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Raquel Amaral Garcia
    • 3
  • Isabel Díaz-Reviriego
    • 1
    • 4
  • Mar Cabeza
    • 2
  • Aili Pyhälä
    • 1
    • 2
  • Victoria Reyes-García
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA)Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterraSpain
  2. 2.Metapopulation Research Centre (MRC), Department of BiosciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Centre for Statistics in Ecology, the Environment and Conservation, Department of Statistical SciencesUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  4. 4.Urban Transformation and Global Change Laboratory, Internet Interdisciplinary InstituteUniversitat Oberta de CatalunyaCastelldefels, BarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA)BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations