Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 16, Supplement 1, pp 17–29

Livestock losses and hotspots of attack from tigers and leopards in Kanha Tiger Reserve, Central India

  • Jennifer R. B. Miller
  • Yadvendradev V. Jhala
  • Jyotirmay Jena
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10113-015-0871-5

Cite this article as:
Miller, J.R.B., Jhala, Y.V. & Jena, J. Reg Environ Change (2016) 16(Suppl 1): 17. doi:10.1007/s10113-015-0871-5


Carnivore attacks on livestock are a primary driver of human–carnivore conflict and carnivore decline globally. Livestock depredation is particularly threatening to carnivore conservation in Central India, a priority landscape and stronghold for the endangered tiger. To strengthen the effectiveness of conflict mitigation strategies, we examined the spatial and temporal patterns and physical characteristics of livestock depredation in Kanha Tiger Reserve. We combined livestock compensation historical records (2001–2009) with ground surveys (2011–2012) and carnivore scat to identify when and where livestock species were most vulnerable. Between 400 and 600 livestock were reported for financial compensation each year, and most (91–95 %) were successfully reimbursed. Tigers and leopards were responsible for nearly all livestock losses and most often killed in the afternoon and early evening. Cattle and buffalo were most at risk in dense forests away from villages and roads, whereas goats were most often killed in open vegetation near villages. A spatial predation risk model for cattle revealed high-risk hotspots around the core zone boundary, confirming the significant risks to livestock grazing illegally in the core. Such ecological insights on carnivore–livestock interactions may help improve species-specific livestock husbandry for minimizing livestock losses and enabling coexistence between people and carnivores.


Carnivore conservation Hotspot predation risk map Human–carnivore conflict Kill site Livestock depredation Livestock compensation 

Supplementary material

10113_2015_871_MOESM1_ESM.doc (518 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 518 kb)

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
American Institute for Indian Studies
  • Junior Research Fellowship
American Philosophical Society
  • Lewis and Clark Fund for Exploration
Association of Zoos & Aquariums
  • Conservation Endowment Fund
John Ball Zoo Society
  • Conservation Grant
Yale Tropical Resources Institute
  • Summer Research Fellowship
National Science Foundation
  • Graduate Research Fellowship Program

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.PantheraLion and Leopard ProgramsNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Wildlife Institute of IndiaDehradunIndia
  4. 4.Satpuda Maikal Landscape ProgrammeWWF-IndiaMandlaIndia

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