A recent outbreak of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia
A recent review of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci; COTS) in Indonesia has suggested that their impacts have gone under-reported. In 2012–2013, we surveyed COTS at permanent transects within 12 sites of the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia, a coastal region close to two rivers and the heavily urbanised city of Makassar. Evidence of COTS was apparent at 8 of 12 sites surveyed with highest densities (37 starfish per 250 m−2 at Barrang Lompo) comparable to those reported in the Indonesian historical literature. At Barrang Lompo and Bonetambung, the COTS outbreak resulted in the loss of half the live coral. Terrestrial effluents have reduced water quality in the Spermonde Archipelago, which further supports recent work linking water quality and COTS outbreaks, thus providing a warning of future outbreaks to Indonesian coastal managers given the country’s increased urbanisation.
KeywordsCoral reef Crown-of-thorns starfish Coral triangle Makassar Disturbance
We want to thank the University of Hasanuddin for access to the Barrang Lompo research station. This study was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF; Grant No. 03F0643A) under the bilateral German Indonesian Project, Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems (SPICE) III. Lastly, we want to thank the patience of one anonymous referee whose input contributed greatly to this manuscript.
- Kayal M, Vercelloni J, Lison de Loma T, Bosserelle P, Chancerelle Y, Geoffroy S, Stievenart C, Michonneau F, Penin L, Planes S, Adjeroud M (2012) Predator crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) outbreak, mass mortality of corals, and cascading effects on reef fish and benthic communities. PLoS One 7:e47363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moll H (1983) Zonation and diversity of scleractinan on reefs off SW Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ph.D thesis. Leiden University, p 105Google Scholar
- Muller EE, Raymundo LJ, Willis BL, Haapkylä J, Yusuf S, Wilson JR, Harvell DC (2012) Coral health and disease in the Spermonde Archipelago and Wakatobi, Sulawesi. J Indones Coral Reefs 1:147–159Google Scholar
- Pratchet MS, Caballes CF, Rivera-Posada JA, Sweatman HPA (2014) Limits to understanding and managing outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster spp.). Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 52:133–200Google Scholar