Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 895–906 | Cite as

Impacts of climate change on biodiversity in Israel: an expert assessment approach

  • Marcelo SternbergEmail author
  • Ofri Gabay
  • Dror Angel
  • Orit Barneah
  • Sarig Gafny
  • Avital Gasith
  • José M. Grünzweig
  • Yaron Hershkovitz
  • Alvaro Israel
  • Dana Milstein
  • Gil Rilov
  • Yosef Steinberger
  • Tamar Zohary
Original Article


The Mediterranean region is both a global biodiversity hot spot and one of the biomes most strongly affected by human activities. Ecologists and land managers are increasingly required to advise on threats to biodiversity under foreseeable climate change. We used expert surveys to evaluate current understanding and uncertainties regarding climate change impacts on biodiversity in terrestrial, inland freshwater, and marine ecosystems of Israel. Finally, we propose a response strategy toward minimizing these changes. The surveys and the published literature indicated that the main climate change impacts in Israel include ongoing deterioration of freshwater habitats, decline of shrubland and woodland areas, and increased frequency and severity of forest fires. For the Mediterranean Sea, the surveys predict further introduction and establishment of invasive species from the Red Sea, accelerated erosion of coastal rocky habitat, and collapse of coastal rocky platforms. In the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, corals may be resilient to foreseen climate change due to their high tolerance for rising water temperatures. Despite these predictions, science-based knowledge regarding the contribution of management toward minimizing climate change impacts on biodiversity is still lacking. Habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation are presently the primary and immediate threats to natural ecosystems in Israel. Protection of natural ecosystems, including local refugia, must be intensified to maintain existing biodiversity under pressure from mounting urban development and climate change. This protection policy should include ecological corridors to minimize the consequences of fragmentation of existing natural habitats for species survival. A longer-term strategy should mandate connectivity across environmental and climatic gradients to maintain natural resilience by allowing reorganization of natural ecosystems facing climate change.


Adaptation Connectivity Freshwater ecosystems Marine ecosystems Protected corridors Terrestrial ecosystems 



The study was supported by the Israel Climate Change Information Center (ICCIC) in preparation for formulating Israel’s national response strategy to climate change. ICCIC was financially supported by the Israel Ministry for Environmental Protection (MEP). We thank all the people who answered the questionnaire as part of the expert survey and the Chief Scientist of MEP for supporting this project. Thanks are also extended to two anonymous reviewers for fruitful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.

Supplementary material

10113_2014_675_MOESM1_ESM.docx (51 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 51 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcelo Sternberg
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ofri Gabay
    • 1
  • Dror Angel
    • 2
  • Orit Barneah
    • 3
  • Sarig Gafny
    • 3
  • Avital Gasith
    • 4
  • José M. Grünzweig
    • 5
  • Yaron Hershkovitz
    • 4
  • Alvaro Israel
    • 6
  • Dana Milstein
    • 7
  • Gil Rilov
    • 6
  • Yosef Steinberger
    • 8
  • Tamar Zohary
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants, Faculty of Life SciencesTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Maritime Civilizations, Leon Charney School of Marine SciencesHaifa UniversityHaifaIsrael
  3. 3.School of Marine SciencesRuppin Academic CenterEmek HeferIsrael
  4. 4.Department of ZoologyTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  5. 5.Institute for Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentHebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  6. 6.National Institute of OceanographyIsrael Oceanographic and Limnological ResearchHaifaIsrael
  7. 7.Science DivisionNature and Parks AuthorityJerusalemIsrael
  8. 8.Mina and Edward Goodman Faculty of Life SciencesBar-Ilan UniversityRamat GanIsrael
  9. 9.Kinneret Limnological LaboratoryIsrael Oceanographic and Limnological ResearchMigdalIsrael

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