Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 169–182 | Cite as

Examining relationships between climate change and mental health in the Circumpolar North

  • Ashlee Cunsolo WilloxEmail author
  • Eleanor Stephenson
  • Jim Allen
  • François Bourque
  • Alexander Drossos
  • Sigmund Elgarøy
  • Michael J. Kral
  • Ian Mauro
  • Joshua Moses
  • Tristan Pearce
  • Joanna Petrasek MacDonald
  • Lisa Wexler
Original Article


Indigenous people living in the Circumpolar North rely, to varying degrees, on the natural environment and the resources it provides for their lifestyle and livelihoods. As a consequence, these Northern Indigenous peoples may be more sensitive to global climate change, which has implications for food security, cultural practices, and health and well-being. To date, most research on the human dimensions of climate change in the Circumpolar North has focused on biophysical issues and their consequences, such as changing sea ice regimes affecting travel to hunting grounds or the effects of melting permafrost on built infrastructure. Less is known about how these changes in the environment affect mental health and well-being. In this paper, we build upon existing research, combined with our community-based research and professional mental health practices, to outline some pathways and mechanisms through which climate change may adversely impact mental health and well-being in the Circumpolar North. Our analysis indicates that mental health may be affected by climate change due to changes to land, ice, snow, weather, and sense of place; impacts to physical health; damage to infrastructure; indirect impacts via media, research, and policy; and through the compounding of existing stress and distress. We argue that climate change is likely an emerging mental health challenge for Circumpolar Indigenous populations and efforts to respond through research, policy, and mental health programming should be a priority. We conclude by identifying next steps in research, outlining points for policy, and calling for additional mental health resources that are locally responsive and culturally relevant.


Climate change Mental health Circumpolar North Indigenous Arctic 



The authors wish to thank the many wonderful Circumpolar communities, health professionals, and Indigenous partners with whom we have been collaborating and from whom we have learned so much. We also wish to thank Adam Bonnycastle (University of Guelph) for creating the map, and the two anonymous reviewers for providing very helpful comments and suggestions, which improved this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashlee Cunsolo Willox
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eleanor Stephenson
    • 2
  • Jim Allen
    • 3
  • François Bourque
    • 4
  • Alexander Drossos
    • 5
  • Sigmund Elgarøy
    • 6
  • Michael J. Kral
    • 7
  • Ian Mauro
    • 8
  • Joshua Moses
    • 9
  • Tristan Pearce
    • 10
    • 11
  • Joanna Petrasek MacDonald
    • 2
  • Lisa Wexler
    • 12
  1. 1.Departments of Nursing and Indigenous StudiesCape Breton UniversitySydneyCanada
  2. 2.Department of GeographyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of Biobehavioral Health and Population SciencesUniversity of Minnesota Medical SchoolDuluthUSA
  4. 4.Institute of PsychiatryKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  6. 6.SANKS—Sami National Centre for Mental HealthLakselvNorway
  7. 7.Departments of Psychology and AnthropologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA
  8. 8.Department of GeographyUniversity of WinnipegWinnipegCanada
  9. 9.Departments of Anthropology and Environmental StudiesHaverford CollegeHaverfordUSA
  10. 10.Faculty of Arts and Business, Sustainability Research CentreUniversity of the Sunshine CoastSunshine CoastAustralia
  11. 11.Department of GeographyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  12. 12.Division of Community Health Studies, Department of Public HealthUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

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