Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 1995–2006 | Cite as

Present and future climate resources for various types of tourism in the Bay of Palma, Spain

  • D. Bafaluy
  • A. AmengualEmail author
  • R. Romero
  • V. Homar
Original Article


The Bay of Palma, in Mallorca, is a leading region for beach holidays in Europe. It is based on a mass tourism model strongly modulated by seasonality and with high environmental costs. Main tourism stakeholders are currently implementing complementary activities to mitigate seasonality, regardless of climate change. But climate is—and will remain—a key resource or even a limitation for many types of tourism. Assessing the present conditions and exploring the future evolution of climate potential for these activities have become a priority in this area. To this end, the climate index for tourism (CIT)—originally designed to rate the climate resource of beach tourism—is adapted to specifically appraise cycling, cultural tourism, football, golf, motor boating, sailing and hiking. Climate resources are derived by using observed and projected daily meteorological data. Projections have been obtained from a suite of Regional Climate Models run under the A1B emissions scenario. To properly derive CITs at such local scale, we apply a statistical adjustment. Present climate potentials ratify the appropriateness of the Bay of Palma for satisfactorily practicing all the examined activities. However, optimal conditions are projected to degrade during the peak visitation period while improving in spring and autumn. That is, climate change could further exacerbate the present imbalance between the seasonal distributions of ideal climate potentials and high attendance levels. With this information at hand, policy makers and regional tourism stakeholders can respond more effectively to the great challenge of local adaptation to climate change.


Climate indices for tourism Seasonality Climate change Regional modelling Statistical adjustment Local scale 



Prof. Wolfgang Cramer, editor-in-chief of Regional Environmental Change, and two anonymous reviewers are acknowledged for their valuable comments which helped to improve the quality of this manuscript. The Spanish Agency of Meteorology (AEMET) is acknowledged for providing the automatic weather station data. We acknowledge the CGL2008-01271/CLI (MEDICANES) and PREDIMED (CGL2011-24458) Spanish projects, which is partially supported with FEDER funds, and El Centro Nacional de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación para el Turismo (CIDTUR) which also partially supported this study. The authors also acknowledge the ENSEMBLES project, funded by the European Commission’s 6th Framework Programme, through contract GOCE-CT-2003-505539.

Supplementary material

10113_2013_450_MOESM1_ESM.doc (155 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 155 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grup de Meteorologia, Departament de FísicaUniversitat de les Illes BalearsPalma de MallorcaSpain

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