Cognition, Technology & Work

, Volume 19, Issue 2–3, pp 303–313 | Cite as

Sustainable usage through emotional engagement: a user experience analysis of an adaptive driving school application

  • Amir Dirin
  • Teemu H. Laine
  • Marko Nieminen
Original Article


This paper explores the factors affecting sustainable usage of digital services, such as mobile learning (m-learning) applications. We define a conceptual model of digital service sustainability and its measurement indicators and criteria. We assess the conceptual model by applying it to an adaptive m-learning application, which provides theory and assessment for driving school students based on their competence and learning progress. Additionally, the application provides mandatory self-evaluation reports to instructors after each practical driving session. The application assessment focused on how students’ performed the predefined tasks at a usability laboratory. The assessment was based on educational components in conjunction with user experience factors of delightfulness, adjustability, satisfaction, and reliability. The key qualitative performance aspects proved to be user-centered (e.g. individual differences in cognitive and learning capabilities), UI-focused (e.g. interaction and adaptability to screen resolution), and content-related (e.g. contextual delivery, emotional appeal, adaptability). These elements resulted in overall delightful and effortless experience. The evaluation results indicate that the user experience factors impact sustainable usage because students are emotionally attached to the application. Therefore, we suggest that emotional attachment assessment results may serve as an indicator for sustainability of m-learning applications. These results help mobile application designers to design sustainable applications.


Sustainable usage User experience factors Emotional engagement Driver’s license application 



We would like to thank Mr. Jouko Kalliola at Haaga Driving School Ltd for continuous support to this project. The paper was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Project NRF-2015R1C1A1A02036469).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Business Information TechnologyHaaga-Helia University of Applied SciencesHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Department of Information and Computer EngineeringAjou UniversitySuwonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceAalto UniversityEspooFinland

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