Skin represents an interface between internal and external environment; it protects human body by regulating the water loss and the maintenance of body temperature, defending against irritant and pathogen agents, and against physical, chemical, and UV damage. It provides to essential physiological functions, such as the important antioxidant defense capacity; its protective/defensive function is performed by a high number of proteins, and shows important functions in maintenance of skin barrier homeostasis. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts play a pivotal role to determine or prevent skin aging in response to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli, modulating cytokines and several biochemical factors. Non-ablative technologies are playing an increasing role in the management of skin aging, inducing a dermal remodeling without a visible epidermal damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Q-switched 1064 Nd-YAG laser (Medlite Conbio C6 Nd-YAG laser, Cynosure USA) in skin barrier function, analyzing the constituents which are strongly altered in aging skin. Particularly, we evaluated the expression of filaggrin, TGase, HSP70, and aquaporins, on HaCaT cells. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines has been investigated too.
As a second step of the study, we analyzed the modulation of the rejuvenation molecular markers on human skin fibroblasts (HDFs) stimulated with keratinocytes conditioned medium (KCM).
Our results demonstrated that Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser acts on the skin barrier function, increasing the expression of aquaporins, filaggrin, TGase, and HSP70, modulating the proinflammatory cytokines. In fibroblasts stimulated with keratinocytes conditioned medium (KCM) and irradiated with Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, we can observe a reduction of MMP-1 and an increase in procollagen, collagen type I, and elastin. Our results highlight that Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser treatment could represent an effective weapon to fight skin aging.
Helbig D, Paasch U (2011) Molecular changes during skin aging and wound healing after fractional ablative photothermolysis. Skin Res Technol 17(1):119–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ogden S, Dearman RJ, Kimber I, Griffiths CE (2011) The effect of ageing on phenotype and function of monocyte-derived Langerhans cells. Br J Dermatol 165(1):184–188CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Ye J, Garg A, Calhoun C, Feingold KR, Elias PM, Ghadially R (2002) Alterations in cytokine regulation in aged epidermis: implications for permeability barrier homeostasis and inflammation. I. IL-1 gene family. Exp Dermatol 11(3):209–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Takahashi H, Aoki N, Nakamura S, Asano K, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Iizuka H (2000) Cornified cell envelope formation is distinct from apoptosis in epidermal keratinocytes. J Dermatol Sci 23:161–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ikarashi N, Kon R, Kaneko M, Mizukami N, Kusunoki Y, Sugiyama K (2017) Cornified cell envelope formation is distinct from apoptosis in epidermal keratinocytes. Int J Mol Sci;18(7)Google Scholar
Orringer JS, Hammerberg C, Hamilton T, Johnson TM et al (2008) Molecular effects of photodynamic therapy for photoaging. Arch Dermatol 144(10):1296–1302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Stuzin JM, Baker TJ, Baker TM, Kligman AM (1997) Histologic effects of the high-energy pulsed CO2 laser on photoaged facial skin. Plast Reconstr Surg 99:2036–2050CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Greaves AJ (2016) The effects of narrowbands of visible light upon some skin disorders: a review. Int J Cosmet Sci 38(4):325–345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Cinceros JL, Del Rio R, Palou J (1998) The Q-switched neodymium (Nd):YAG laser with quadruple frequency. Clinical histological evaluation of facial resurfacing using different wavelength. Dermatol Surg 24:345–352Google Scholar
Jansen PL, Rosch R, Jansen M, Binnebösel M et al (2007) Regulation of MMP-2 gene transcription in dermal wounds. J Invest Dermatol 127(7):1762–1767CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Goldberg DJ, Silapunt S (2001) Histologic evaluation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in the nonablative treatment of wrinkles. Dermatol Surg 27(8):744–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
Schmults CD, Phelps R, Goldberg DJ (2004) Nonablative facial remodeling: erythema reduction and histologic evidence of new collagen formation using a 300-microsecond 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser. Arch Dermatol 140(11):1373–1376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ye X, Wang L, Dang Y, Liu B, Zhao D (2012) Investigation of the 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on collagen expression in an animal model. Photomed Laser Surg 30(10):604–609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Gold MH, Seinsing W, Biron J (2014) Fractional Q-switched 1,064-nm laser for the treatment of photoaged-photodamaged skin. Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy 16:69–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Mosmann T (1983) Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Honk LD (2007) Masers to magic bullets: an updated history of lasers in dermatology. Clin Dermatol 25:434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hara M, Ma T, Verkman AS (2002) Selectively reduced glycerol in skin of aquaporin-3-deficient mice may account for impaired skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier recovery. J Biol Chem 277:4616–4621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeeuwen PL (2004) Epidermal differentiation: the role of proteases and their inhibitors. Eur J Cell Biol 83:761–773CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Fisher GJ, Choi HC, Bata-Csorgo Z, Shao Y et al (2001) Ultraviolet irradiation increases matrix metalloproteinase-8 protein in human skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol 117(2):219–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Brenneisen P, Wlaschek M, Wenk J, Blaudschun R, Hinrichs R, Dissemond J, Krieg T, Scharffetter-Kochanek K (1999) Ultraviolet-B induction of interstitial collagenase and stromelyin-1 occurs in human dermal fibroblasts via an autocrine interleukin-6-dependent loop. FEBS Lett 449(1):36–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar