Comparison of the effect of root surface modification with citric acid, EDTA, and aPDT on adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts and osteoblasts: an in vitro study
Root demineralization is used in Periodontics as an adjuvant for mechanical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of root surface modification with mechanic, chemical, and photodynamic treatments on adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Root fragments were treated by scaling and root planing (C—control group), EDTA (pH 7), citric acid plus tetracycline (CA—pH 1), and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) with toluidine blue O and red laser (pH 4). Cells were seeded (104 cells/well, 6th passage) on root fragments of each experimental group and cultured for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cells were counted in scanning electron microscopy images by a calibrated examiner. For fibroblasts, the highest number of cells were present at 72-h period (p < 0.05). EDTA group showed a very low number of cells in relation to CA group (p < 0.05). CA and aPDT group presented higher number of cells in all periods, but without differences between other treatment groups (p > 0.05). For osteoblasts, there was a significant increase in cell numbers for aPDT group at 72 h (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aPDT treatment provided a positive stimulus to osteoblast growth, while for fibroblasts, aPDT and CA had a tendency for higher cell growth.
KeywordsDental scaling Periodontal disease Photochemotherapy Fibroblasts Osteoblasts
This study was funded by grant #2010/15667-2 and #2012/06738-9 São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This paper was approved by Bauru School of Dentistry Ethical Committee in Human Research (Protocols 721.759 and 1.710.789).
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants that donated teeth for the study.
- 11.Damante CA, Ducati P, Ferreira R, Salmeron S, Zangrando MS, de Rezende ML, Sant’Ana AC, Greghi SL, Magalhães AC (2016) In vitro evaluation of adhesion/proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts on demineralized root surfaces by toluidine blue O in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 13:303–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Karam PSBH, Ferreira R, Oliveira RC, Greghi SLA, de Rezende MLR, Sant’Ana ACP, Zangrando MSR, Damante CA (2017) Stimulation of human gingival fibroblasts viability and growth by roots treated with high intensity lasers, photodynamic therapy and citric acid. Arch Oral Biol 81:1–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Theodoro LH, Zezell DM, Garcia VG, Haypek P, Nagata MJH, Almeida JM, Eduardo CP (2010) Comparative analysis of root surface smear layer removal by different etching modalities or erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser irradiation. A scanning electron microscopy study. Laser Med Sci 25:485–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Pessoa L, Galvão V, Damante C, Sant’Ana ACP (2015) Removal of black stains from teeth by photodynamic therapy: clinical and microbiological analysis. BMJ Case Reports. https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2015-212276
- 42.Decrock E, Hoorelbeke D, Ramadan R, Delvaeye T, De Bock M, Wang N, Krysko DV, Baatout S, Bultynck G, Aerts A, Vinken M, Leybaert L (2017) Calcium, oxidative stress and connexin channels, a harmonious orchestra directing the response to radiotherapy treatment? Biochim Biophys Acta 1864:1099–1120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar