Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 533–538 | Cite as

Comparison of the effect of root surface modification with citric acid, EDTA, and aPDT on adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts and osteoblasts: an in vitro study

  • Rafael Ferreira
  • Renato Taddei de Toledo Barros
  • Paula Stephania Brandão Hage Karam
  • Adriana Campos Passanezi Sant’Ana
  • Sebastião Luiz Aguiar Greghi
  • Maria Lucia Rubo de Rezende
  • Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti Zangrando
  • Rodrigo Cardoso de Oliveira
  • Carla Andreotti Damante
Original Article


Root demineralization is used in Periodontics as an adjuvant for mechanical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of root surface modification with mechanic, chemical, and photodynamic treatments on adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Root fragments were treated by scaling and root planing (C—control group), EDTA (pH 7), citric acid plus tetracycline (CA—pH 1), and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) with toluidine blue O and red laser (pH 4). Cells were seeded (104 cells/well, 6th passage) on root fragments of each experimental group and cultured for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cells were counted in scanning electron microscopy images by a calibrated examiner. For fibroblasts, the highest number of cells were present at 72-h period (p < 0.05). EDTA group showed a very low number of cells in relation to CA group (p < 0.05). CA and aPDT group presented higher number of cells in all periods, but without differences between other treatment groups (p > 0.05). For osteoblasts, there was a significant increase in cell numbers for aPDT group at 72 h (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aPDT treatment provided a positive stimulus to osteoblast growth, while for fibroblasts, aPDT and CA had a tendency for higher cell growth.


Dental scaling Periodontal disease Photochemotherapy Fibroblasts Osteoblasts 



This study was funded by grant #2010/15667-2 and #2012/06738-9 São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This paper was approved by Bauru School of Dentistry Ethical Committee in Human Research (Protocols 721.759 and 1.710.789).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants that donated teeth for the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Ferreira
    • 1
  • Renato Taddei de Toledo Barros
    • 1
  • Paula Stephania Brandão Hage Karam
    • 1
  • Adriana Campos Passanezi Sant’Ana
    • 1
  • Sebastião Luiz Aguiar Greghi
    • 1
  • Maria Lucia Rubo de Rezende
    • 1
  • Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti Zangrando
    • 1
  • Rodrigo Cardoso de Oliveira
    • 2
  • Carla Andreotti Damante
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Periodontics, Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontics, Bauru School of DentistryUniversity of São PauloBauruBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Biochemistry, Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontics, Bauru School of DentistryUniversity of São PauloBauruBrazil

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