High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied noninvasively to create focused zones of tissue coagulation on various skin layers. We performed a comparative study of HIFU, evaluating patterns of focused tissue coagulation and ablation upon application thereof. A tissue-mimicking (TM) phantom was prepared with bovine serum albumin and polyacrylamide hydrogel to evaluate the geometric patterns of HIFU-induced thermal injury zones (TIZs) for five different HIFU devices. Additionally, for each device, we investigated histologic patterns of HIFU-induced coagulation and ablation in serial sections of cadaveric skin of the face and neck. All HIFU devices generated remarkable TIZs in the TM phantom, with different geometric values of coagulation for each device. Most of the TIZs seemed to be separated into two or more tiny parts. In cadaveric skin, characteristic patterns of HIFU-induced ablation and coagulation were noted along the mid to lower dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and along subcutaneous fat to the superficial musculoaponeurotic system or the platysma muscle of the neck at 4.5 mm. Additionally, remarkable pre-focal areas of tissue coagulation were observed in the upper and mid dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and mid to lower dermis at 4.5 mm. For five HIFU devices, we outlined various patterns of HIFU-induced TIZ formation along pre-focal, focal, and post-focal areas of TM phantom and cadaveric skin of the face and neck.
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We would like to thank Hye Sun Lee, PhD (Biostatisticians, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea) for her help with the statistical analyses. Also, we would like to thank Anthony Thomas Milliken, ELS (Editing Synthase, Seoul, Korea), for his help with the editing of this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Hee-Jin Kim and Han Gu Kim contributed equally to this work.
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Kim, H., Kim, H.G., Zheng, Z. et al. Coagulation and ablation patterns of high-intensity focused ultrasound on a tissue-mimicking phantom and cadaveric skin. Lasers Med Sci 30, 2251–2258 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-015-1804-8
- High-intensity focused ultrasound
- Tissue phantom
- Comparison study