Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 153–158 | Cite as

Low-level laser therapy in IL-1β, COX-2, and PGE2 modulation in partially injured Achilles tendon

  • Julio Fernandes de JesusEmail author
  • Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena
  • Nayra Deise dos Anjos Rabelo
  • Carlos Eduardo Pinfildi
  • Thiago Yukio Fukuda
  • Helio Plapler
Original Article


This study evaluated IL-1β, COX-2, and PGE2 modulation in partially injured Achilles tendons treated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Sixty-five male Wistar rats were used. Sixty were submitted to a direct injury on Achilles tendon and then distributed into six groups: LASER 1 (a single LLLT application), LASER 3 (three LLLT applications), and LASER 7 (seven LLLT applications) and Sham 1, 3, and 7 (the same injury but LLLT applications were simulated). The five remaining animals were allocated at control group (no procedure performed). LLLT (780 nm) was applied with 70 mW of mean power and 17.5 J/cm2 of fluency for 10 s, once a day. The tendons were surgically removed and assessed immunohistochemically for IL-1β, COX-2, and PGE2. In comparisons with control (IL-1β: 100.5 ± 92.5 / COX-2: 180.1 ± 97.1 / PGE2: 187.8 ± 128.8) IL-1β exhibited (mean ± SD) near-normal level (p > 0.05) at LASER 3 (142.0 ± 162.4). COX-2 and PGE2 exhibited near-normal levels (p > 0.05) at LASER 3 (COX-2: 176.9 ± 75.4 / PGE2: 297.2 ± 259.6) and LASER 7 (COX-2: 259.2 ± 190.4 / PGE2: 587.1 ± 409.7). LLLT decreased Achilles tendon’s inflammatory process.


Achilles tendon Collagen Inflammation Low-level laser therapy Tendinopathy 



We thank the 2011/00979-1, São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for supporting this study and Magna Aparecida Maltauro Soares by the technical support.


  1. 1.
    Oliveira FS, Pinfildi CE, Parizoto NA et al (2009) Effect of low level laser therapy (830 nm) with different therapy regimes on the process of tissue repair in partial lesion calcaneous tendon. Laser Surg Med 41:271–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Johansson K, Adolfsson L, Foldevi M (1999) Attitudes toward management of patients with subacromial pain in Swedish primary care. Fam Pract 3:233–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marcos RL, Leal Junior EC, Messias FM et al (2011) Infrared (810 nm) low-level laser therapy in rat Achilles tendinitis: a consistent alternative to drugs. Photochem Photobiol 87:1447–1452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tsuzaki M, Guyton G, Garrett W et al (2003) IL-1β induces COX2, MMP-1, −3 and −13, ADAMTS-4, IL-1β and IL-6 in human tendon cells. J Orthop Res 21:256–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Suchak AA, Bostick G, Reid D et al (2005) The incidence of Achilles tendon ruptures in Edmonton, Canada. Foot Ankle Int 26:932–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qi J, Fox AM, Alexopoulos LG et al (2006) IL-1β decreases the elastic modulus of human tenocytes. J Appl Physiol 101:189–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koshima H, Kondo S, Mishima S et al (2007) Expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and prostaglandin E3 in a rotator cuff tear in rabbits. J Orthop Res 25:92–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Albertini R, Aimbire FSC, Correa FI et al (2004) Effects of different protocol doses of low power gallium-aluminum-arsenate (Ga-Al-As) laser radiation (650 nm) on carrageenan induced rat paw ooedema. Photochem Photobiol 74:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Albertini R, Villaverde AB, Aimbire F et al (2007) Anti-inflammatory effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with two different red wavelengths (660 nm e 684 nm) in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Photochem Photobiol 89:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cohen DB, Kawamura S, Ehteshami JR, Rodeo SA (2006) Indomethacin and celecoxib impair rotator cuff tendon-to-bone healing. Am J Sports Med 34:362–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Enwemeka CS, Rodriguez OO, Gall NG, Walsh NE (1990) Morphometrics of collagen fibril populations in He:Ne laser photostimulated tendons. J Clin Laser Med Surg 6:47–52Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferreira DM, Zângaro RA, Villaverde AB et al (2005) Analgesic effect of He-Ne (632.8 nm) low-level laser therapy on acute inflammatory pain. Photomed Laser Surg 23:177–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferry ST, Dahners LE, Afshari HM, Weinhold PS (2007) The effects of common anti-inflamatory drugs on the healing rat patellar tendon. Am J Sports Med 35:1326–1333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fukuda TY, Tanji MM, Jesus JF et al (2010) Single session to infrared low level diode laser on TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines release by mononuclear spleen cells in mice: a pilot study. Laser Surg Med 42:584–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Safavi SM, Kazemi B, Esmaeilli M et al (2008) Effects of low-level He-Ne laser irradiation on the gene expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, bFGF, and PDGF in rat’s gingiva. Laser Med Sci 23:331–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tumilty S, Munn J, Abbott H et al (2008) Laser therapy in the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy: a pilot study. Photomed Laser Surg 26:25–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wood VT, Pinfildi CE, Neves MAI et al (2010) Collagen changes and realignment induced by low-level laser therapy and low-intensity ultrasound in the calcaneal tendon. Laser Surg Med 42:559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fredberg U, Stengaard-Pedersen K (2008) Chronic tendinopathy tissue pathology, pain mechanisms, and etiology with special focus on inflammation. Scand J Med Sci Sports 18:3–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Neves MAI, Pinfildi CE, Wood VT et al (2011) Different power settings of LLLT on the repair of calcaneal tendon. Photomed Laser Surg 29:663–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Salate ACB, Barbosa G, Gaspar P et al (2005) Effect of In-Ga-Al-P diode laser irradiation on angiogenesis in partial ruptures of Achilles tendon in rats. Photomed Laser Surg 23:470–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pang L, Knox AJ (1997) Effect of interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ on the induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol 121:579–587PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dourado DM, Fávero S, Matias R et al (2011) Low-level laser therapy promotes vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 expression in endothelial and nonendothelial cells of mice gastrocnemius exposed to snake venom. Photochem Photobiol 87:418–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Silveira LB, Prates RA, Novelli MD et al (2008) Investigation of mast cells in human gingiva following low-intensity laser irradiation. Photomed Laser Surg 26:315–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hardy MM, Seibert K, Manning PT et al (2002) Cyclooxygenase 2-dependent prostaglandin E2 modulates cartilage proteoglycan degradation in human osteoarthritis explants. Arthritis Rheum 46:1789–1803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marsolais D, Côté CH, Frenette J (2001) Neutrophils and macrophages accumulate sequentially following Achilles tendon injury. J Orthop Res 19:1203–1209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fukuda TY, Tanji MM, de Jesus JF et al (2013) Infrared low-level diode laser on serum chemokine MCP-1 modulation in mice. Lasers Med Sci 28:451–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pires D, Xavier M, Araújo T et al (2011) Low-level laser therapy (LLLT; 780 nm) acts differently on mRNA expression of anti- and pro-inflammatory mediators in an experimental model of collagenase-induced tendinitis in rat. Laser Med Sci 26:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Witte MB, Barbul A (1997) General principles of wound healing. Surg Clin N Am 77:509–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abate M, Silbernagel KG, Siljehom C et al (2009) Pathogenesis of tendinopathies: inflammation or degeneration? Arthritis Res Ther 11:235–249PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Laraia EM, Silva IS, Pereira DM et al (2012) Effect of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) on acute inflammation induced by tenotomy of Achilles tendon in rats. Photochem Photobiol 88:1546–1550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bjordal JM, Couppe C, Ljunggren AE (2001) Low level laser therapy for tendinopathy. Evidence of a dose–response pattern. Phys Ther Rev 6:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shimizu N, Yamaguchi M, Goseki T et al (1995) Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1 production by low-power laser irradiation in stretched human periodontal ligament cells. J Dent Res 74:1382–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julio Fernandes de Jesus
    • 1
    Email author
  • Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena
    • 2
  • Nayra Deise dos Anjos Rabelo
    • 3
  • Carlos Eduardo Pinfildi
    • 4
  • Thiago Yukio Fukuda
    • 5
  • Helio Plapler
    • 4
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Surgical Science ProgramUniversidade Federal de São Paulo-UNIFESPSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto ButantanLaboratory of PathophysiologySão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Rehabilitation Sciences ProgramUniversidade Nove de Julho-UNINOVESão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Universidade Federal de São Paulo-UNIFESPSão PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo-ISCMSPSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations