Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 1143–1150 | Cite as

Spatially controlled photothermal heating of bladder tissue through single-walled carbon nanohorns delivered with a fiberoptic microneedle device

  • R. Lyle Hood
  • William F. Carswell
  • Amanda Rodgers
  • Mehmet A. Kosoglu
  • Marissa Nichole Rylander
  • David Grant
  • John L. Robertson
  • Christopher G. RylanderEmail author
Original Article


Laser-based photothermal therapies for urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) are limited to thermal ablation of superficial tumors, as treatment of invasive lesions is hampered by shallow light penetration in bladder tissue at commonly used therapeutic wavelengths. This study evaluates the utilization of sharp, silica, fiberoptic microneedle devices (FMDs) to deliver single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) serving as exogenous chromophores in conjunction with a 1,064-nm laser to amplify thermal treatment doses in a spatially controlled manner. Experiments were conducted to determine the lateral and depth dispersal of SWNHs in aqueous solution (0.05 mg/mL) infused through FMDs into the wall of healthy, inflated, ex vivo porcine bladders. SWNH-perfused bladder regions were irradiated with a free-space, CW, 1,064-nm laser in order to determine the SWNH efficacy as exogenous chromophores within the organ. SWNHs infused at a rate of 50 μL/min resulted in an average lateral expansion rate of 0.36 ± 0.08 cm2/min. Infused SWNHs dispersal depth was limited to the urothelium and muscular propria for 50 μL/min infusions of 10 min or less, but dispersed through the entire thickness after a 15-min infusion period. Irradiation of SWNH-perfused bladder tissue with 1,064 nm laser light at 0.95 W/cm2 over 40 s exhibited a maximum increase of approximately 19 °C compared with an increase of approximately 3 °C in a non-perfused control. The results indicate that these silica FMDs can successfully penetrate into the bladder wall to rapidly distribute SWNHs with some degree of lateral and depth control and that SWNHs may be a viable exogenous chromophore for photothermal amplification of laser-based UCC treatments.


Microfluidics Bladder cancer Biotransport Exogenous chromophores Microneedles 



The authors would like to acknowledge the NSF (CBET 1R21CA156078) and NIH (NIH/NCI 1R21CA156078) for their funding of this project. Single-walled carbon nanohorns were generously provided by the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratories and sponsored by the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences Division of Scientific User Facilities. Fiberoptic microneedle fabrication methods and applications are described in US 13/203,800 and PCT/US2012/026,968, which are managed by the Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties Group.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Lyle Hood
    • 1
  • William F. Carswell
    • 1
  • Amanda Rodgers
    • 1
  • Mehmet A. Kosoglu
    • 2
  • Marissa Nichole Rylander
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Grant
    • 3
  • John L. Robertson
    • 3
  • Christopher G. Rylander
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Biomedical Engineering and SciencesVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  3. 3.Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary MedicineVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA

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