Effect of acid and laser etching on shear bond strength of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements to composite resin


Success in sandwich technique procedures can be achieved through an acceptable bond between the materials. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 35% phosphoric acid and Er,Cr:YSGG laser on shear bond strength of conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) to composite resin in sandwich technique. Sixty-six specimens were prepared from each type of glass-ionomer cements and divided into three treatment groups as follows: without pretreatment, acid etching by 35% phosphoric acid for 15 s, and 1-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment for 15 s with a 600-μm-diameter tip aligned perpendicular to the target area at a distance of 1 mm from the surface. Energy density of laser irradiation was 17.7 J/cm2. Two specimens in each group were prepared for evaluation under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after surface treatment and the remainder underwent bonding procedure with a bonding agent and composite resin. Then the shear bond strength was measured at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Two-factor analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey test showed that the cement type, surface treatment method, and the interaction of these two factors significantly affect the shear bond strength between glass-ionomer cements and composite resin (p < 0.05). Surface treatment with phosphoric acid or Er,Cr:YSGG laser increased the shear bond strength of GIC to composite resin; however, in RMGIC only laser etching resulted in significantly higher bond strength. These findings were supported by SEM results. The fracture mode was evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×20.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. 1.

    Taher NM, Ateyah NZ (2007) Shear bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer cement bonded to different tooth-colored restorative materials. J Contemp Dent Pract 8:25–34

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Roberson TM (2006) Fundamentals in tooth preparation. In: Roberson TM, Heymann HO, Swift EJ Jr (eds) Sturdevant’s art and science of operative dentistry, 5th edn. Mosby, Inc, St. Louis, pp 281–321

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Hilton TJ, Broome JC (2006) Direct posterior esthetic restorations. In: Summitt JB, Robbins JW, Hilton TJ, Schwartz RS (eds) Fundamentals of operative dentistry, a contemporary approach, 3rd edn. Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc, Chicago, pp 289–339

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Hinoura K, Suzuki H, Onose H (1991) Factors influencing bond strengths between unetched glass ionomers and resins. Oper Dent 16:90–95

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bowen RL, Marjenhoff WA (1992) Dental composites/glass ionomers: the materials. Adv Dent Res 6:44–49

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Zanata RL, Navarro MF, Ishikiriama A, da Silva e Souza Junior MH, Delazari RC (1997) Bond strength between resin composite and etched and non-etched glass ionomer. Braz Dent J 8:73-78

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Suliman AA, Schulein TM, Boyer DB, Kohout FJ (1989) Effects of etching and rinsing times and salivary contamination on etched glass-ionomer cement bonded to resin composites. Dent Mater 5:171–175

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Sneed WD, Looper SW (1985) Shear bond strength of a composite resin to an etched glass ionomer. Dent Mater 1:127–128

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hinoura K, Moore BK, Phillips RW (1987) Tensile bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin. J Am Dent Assoc 114:167–172

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Subrata G, Davidson CL (1989) The effect of various surface treatments on the shear strength between composite resin and glass-ionomer cement. J Dent 17:28–32

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Sheth JJ, Jensen ME, Sheth PJ, Versteeg J (1989) Effect of etching glass-ionomer cements on bond strength to composite resin. J Dent Res 68:1082–1087

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Taggart SE, Pearson GJ (1991) The effect of etching on glass polyalkenoate cements. J Oral Rehabil 18:31–42

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Tate WH, Friedl KH, Powers JM (1996) Bond strength of composites to hybrid ionomers. Oper Dent 21:147–152

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Sidhu SK, Watson TF (1995) Resin-modified glass ionomer materials. Am J Dent 8:59–67

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Waterlase, Biolase, WWW.Biolase.com

  16. 16.

    Hadley J, Young DA, Eversole LR, Gornbein JA (2000) A laser-powered hydrokinetic system for caries removal and cavity preparation. J Am Dent Assoc 131:777–785

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Obeidi A, Liu PR, Ramp LC, Beck P, Gutknecht N (2009) Acid-etch interval and shear bond strength of Er,Cr:YSGG laser-prepared enamel and dentin. Lasers Med Sci. doi:10.1007/s10103-009-0652-9

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Botta SB, da Ana PA, Zezell DM, Powers JM, Matos AB (2009) Adhesion after erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser application at three different irradiation conditions. Lasers Med Sci 24:67–73. doi:10.1007/s10103-007-0521-3

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Tamaki Y, Yamada Y, Murakami Y, Matsumoto K (2003) Atomic analysis and Knoop hardness measurement of the cavity floor prepared by Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation in vitro. J Oral Rehabil 30:515–521

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Huang HH, Chuang YC, Chen ZH, Lee TL, Chen CC (2007) Improving the initial biocompatibility of a titanium surface using an Er, Cr:YSGG laser-powered hydrokinetic system. Dent Mater 23:410–414

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Wang X, Zhang C, Matsumoto K (2005) In vivo study of the healing processes that occur in the jaws of rabbits following perforation by an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Lasers Med Sci 20:21–27

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Suzuki N, Murakami Y, Matsumoto K (2001) Analysis of surface roughness of enamel and dentin after Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. J Clin Laser Med Surg 19:297–303

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Turkmen C, Sazak H, Gunday M (2006) Effects of the Nd:YAG laser, air-abrasion and acid-etchant on filling materials. J Oral Rehabil 33:64–69

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Hibst R (2002) Lasers for caries removal and cavity preparation: State of the art and future directions. J Oral Laser Applications 2:203–212

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Li J, Liu Ya, Liu Yu, Soremark R, Sundstrom F (1996) Flexure strength of resin-modified glass ionimer cements and their bond strength to dental composites. Acta Odontol Scand 54:55–58

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Burgess JO, Barghi N, Chan DC, Hummert T (1993) A comparative study of three glass ionomer base materials. Am J Dent 6:137–141

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Kerby RE, Knobloch L (1992) The relative shear bond strength of visible light-curing and chemically curing glass ionomer cement to composite resin. Quintessence Int 23:641–644

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Farah CS, Orton VG, Collard SM (1998) Shear bond strength of chemical and light-cured glass ionomer cements bonded to resin composites. Aust Dent J 43:81–86

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Wexler G, Beech DR (1988) Bonding of a composite restorative material to etched glass ionomer cement. Aust Dent J 33:313–318

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Papagiannoulis P, Eliades G, Lekka M (1990) Etched glass ionomer liners: surface properties and interfacial profile with composite resin. J Oral Rehabil 17:25–36

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Powers JM, Sakaguchi RL (2006) Craig's restorative dental materials. Mosby Elsevier Inc, Missouri

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Burrow MF, Nopnakeepong U, Phrukkanon S (2002) A comparison of microtensile bond strengths of several dentin bonding systems to primary and permanent dentin. Dent Mater 18:239–245

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    de Carvalho RC, de Freitas PM, Otsuki M, de Eduardo CP, Tagami J (2008) Micro-shear bond strength of Er:YAG-laser-treated dentin. Lasers Med Sci 23:117–124. doi:10.1007/s10103-006-0434-6

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Gutknecht N, Apel C, Schafer C, Lampert F (2001) Microleakage of composite fillings in Er, Cr:YSGG laser-prepared class II cavities. Lasers Surg Med 28:371–374. doi:10.1002/lsm.1064

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank Dr. Majid Abdolrahimi for the revision of the English manuscript. This project was carried out by the financial support from the Deputy Dean of Research at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Siavash Savadi Oskoee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Navimipour, E.J., Oskoee, S.S., Oskoee, P.A. et al. Effect of acid and laser etching on shear bond strength of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements to composite resin. Lasers Med Sci 27, 305–311 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-010-0868-8

Download citation


  • Er,Cr:YSGG laser
  • Phosphoric acid
  • Sandwich technique
  • Surface treatment