Scanning electron microscopy investigation of PMMA removal by laser irradiation (Er:YAG) in comparison with an ultrasonic system and curettage in hip joint revision arthroplasty

Abstract

The cement often left in the femur socket during hip joint revision arthroplasty is usually removed by curettage. Another method for removing the cement is to use an ultrasonic system, and yet another alternative may be to use a laser system. The aim of these investigations was to determine the pulse rate and pulse energy of the Er:YAG laser for sufficient cement ablation. We also compared the results obtained using the laser with those obtained using an ultrasonic device or curettage by histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the border zone between the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and unfixed specimens of femoral bone. Therefore we prepared 30 unfixed human femur stems after hip joint replacement and prepared ten sagittal sections from each femur stem (in total 300 sections). Of these 300 specimens, 180 were treated with the Er:YAG laser, 60 with the ultrasonic system and 60 by curettage. The high pulse energy of 500 mJ and a pulse rate of 4 Hz provided the highest PMMA ablation rate, although the boundary surface between PMMA and femoral bone was not as fine-grained as found in samples treated at 15 Hz and 250 mJ. However, the treatment time for the same cement ablation rate with the latter settings was twice that at 4 Hz and 500 mJ. Compared to the boundary surfaces treated with the ultrasonic device or curettage, the laser-treated samples had a more distinct undifferentiated boundary surface between PMMA and femoral bone. After development of the Er:YAG-laser to provide higher pulse energies, it may in the future be an additional efficient method for the removal of PMMA in revision arthroplasty. The Er:YAG laser should be combined with an endoscopic and a rinsing suction system so that PMMA can be removed from the femoral shaft under direct vision.

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Correspondence to Klaus Birnbaum.

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Birnbaum, K., Gutknecht, N. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of PMMA removal by laser irradiation (Er:YAG) in comparison with an ultrasonic system and curettage in hip joint revision arthroplasty. Lasers Med Sci 25, 595–603 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-010-0759-z

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Keywords

  • Endoprosthesis
  • Erbium:YAG laser
  • Laser
  • Polymethyl methacrylate
  • Ultrasonic extraction system
  • Scanning electron microscopy