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Rice straw: status, management and strategies for sustainable development with special emphasis on the Northern India and government-supported initiatives

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As one of the world's most significant staple crops, rice has played a crucial part in meeting the primary demand for food for inhabitants across the globe. China and India are the two major producers and consumers of rice as compared to the rest of the world. Despite that, several environmental and health hazards are associated with rice residue, i.e., rice straw. In recent years, the emission of greenhouse gases, deterioration of the soil characteristics and production of hazardous smog have become significant issues that are usually faced during the open-field burning of rice straw in the northern region of India. Several studies have validated the alarming threats of these issues, but on the ground level, suitable measures are yet to be taken. The present review article aims to provide comprehensive details about the utilization of rice straw in various in-situ and ex-situ technologies while highlighting the physical, chemical, thermal and biological characteristics for its application in upcoming technologies with a special emphasis on Northern India. Apart from that, particular emphasis has been given to the initiatives commenced by the government of India for the management of rice straw. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats analysis has been carried out to mitigate the problems related to rice straw, followed by a brief discussion of future perspectives along with sustainable development goals. The data outlined in the article is anticipated to aid the researchers, stakeholders and concerned authorities in improvising the existing practices or to attain new findings for the sustainable management of rice straw.

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Redefining rice straw management: opting for sustainable solutions over conventional methods

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The suggestions provided by colleagues which helped the authors in improving the quality of the research work is appreciatively acknowledged.


The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose. All authors also certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.

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AK and RS wrote the main manuscript text. Rajwinder Singh prepared figures 1–6. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Rajwinder Singh.

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Kaur, A., Singh, R. Rice straw: status, management and strategies for sustainable development with special emphasis on the Northern India and government-supported initiatives. Clean Techn Environ Policy (2024).

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