Site suitability analysis for solar farms using the geographic information system and multi-criteria decision analysis: the case of Antalya, Turkey


The need for renewable energy is continually increasing in developing countries. In Turkey, that need has been felt strongly for a long time. Due to various state's laws, regulations, and incentives, interest in renewable energies, especially solar energy, has been increasing rapidly since the 2000s. The annual amount of sun and therefore the solar potential in Turkey is quite high. In this context, it is crucial to identify suitable locations for solar farms in order to make maximum use of solar energy. The main objective of this study is to identify suitable potential sites for solar farms in the province of Antalya, which contains Turkey's fifth-largest city in terms of population. The geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) were used to assess sites based on various logistical, geographic, and solar criteria. The map data used in the study were open access, and other data were obtained from local administrations. The sites in the study area were classified into four classes according to the results of the suitability index calculation: very suitable, suitable, less suitable, and not suitable. In total, 484,795 hectares, 24.02% of the study area were deemed suitable for solar farms, while 731,094 hectares (36.31%) were less suitable. Currently, very little of the suitable area is used for solar energy generation. The results of the study indicate that the province has a high potential in terms of solar energy. This is the most comprehensive study conducted in Antalya Province by using the widely preferred site selection criteria for solar farms together with AHP.

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Data availability and materials

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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This study was produced from the Master’s Thesis of Urban Planner Şura Kırcalı under the supervision of Assoc. Prof. Dr. Serdar Selim.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors

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Correspondence to Serdar Selim.

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Kırcalı, Ş., Selim, S. Site suitability analysis for solar farms using the geographic information system and multi-criteria decision analysis: the case of Antalya, Turkey. Clean Techn Environ Policy (2021).

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  • Geographic information systems (GIS)
  • Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)
  • Site selection
  • Solar farms
  • Sustainable energy
  • Analytic hierarchy process (AHP)