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Global prospects and challenges of latent heat thermal energy storage: a review

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Energy is the driving force for automation, modernization and economic development where the uninterrupted energy supply is one of the major challenges in the modern world. To ensure that energy supply, the world highly depends on the fossil fuels that made the environment vulnerable inducing pollution in it. Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems are very potent to address the environmental issues fostering sustainable development, while being able to provide a secured and uninterrupted power supply at the same time. Renewable energy resources are using widely as sources of energy, but the unreliable and low-density technique of energy storage remains a major challenge. At present, thermal energy storage systems are being used widely because of the greater energy storage densities compared to similar other techniques. This paper overviews the current energy scenarios, environmental impact and the global prospects as well as challenges of LHTES. A review of the technologies can provide a base for strategic energy policy for the next generation of sustainable energy policies and helps policymakers to frame strategies aiming for clean technology and sustainable development. LHTES-based systems are found to be the one of the most suitable technologies for energy storage systems.

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cp :

Specific heat capacity (kJ/kg.K)

f :

Melt fraction


Mass (kg)

\(\dot{m}\) :

Mass flow rate (kg/s)


Heat storage capacity (J)

Δq :

Latent heat of fusion (KJ/kg)


Temperature (K)


Time (s)

\(\overrightarrow {\varvec{V}}\) :

Velocity (m/s)


Energy transfer efficiency




Density (kg/m3)

ch :


dis :



Encapsulated phase change material

htf :

Heat transfer fluid

in :


pcm :

Phase change material

out :



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The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from University of Malaya, Impact Oriented Interdisciplinary Research Grant (Project: IIRG015B-2019) to carry out this research.

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Correspondence to M. Hasanuzzaman.

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Saha, S., Ruslan, A.R.M., Monjur Morshed, A.K.M. et al. Global prospects and challenges of latent heat thermal energy storage: a review. Clean Techn Environ Policy 23, 531–559 (2021).

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