Skip to main content

A techno-economic feasibility of a process for extraction of starch from waste avocado seeds


Generation of waste from the agro-processing industry is continually increasing due to increasing needs for food security. Beneficiation of this waste has both economic and environmental impacts that can be overcome via implementation of cleaner production technologies. Starch is a renewable biopolymer material which is completely biodegradable, easy to handle and widely available in nature. It has wide applications in various industries including food processing, pharmaceutical, confection, beverage, pulp and paper, chemical, cosmetic, binder and adhesive, packaging and printing, fermentation and textile industries. We have previously demonstrated that high-quality industrial-grade starch can be extracted from waste avocado seeds. This report is focussed on a techno-economic evaluation of the extraction process. It can be concluded, from the study that extraction of starch from waste avocado seeds is economically feasible with an accounting rate of return of 75% and a break-even analysis of 82% with a payback period of 2 years. The process is environmentally sustainable in that minimal amounts of chemicals are used in the extraction process and the wastes generated can be beneficiated into high-value products that can add further to the profitability of the venture.

Graphic abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  • Abebe Desta T, Temesgen Tigabu Y (2015) Starch production, consumption, challenges and investment potentials in Ethiopia: the case of potato starch. Accessed 29 May 2019

  • Alcázar-Alay SC, Meireles MAA (2015) Physicochemical properties, modifications and applications of starches from different botanical sources. Food Sci Technol 35(2):215–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous (2017) Profile on the production of starch. Accessed 20 April 2017

  • Galanakis CM (2018) Food waste recovery: prospects and opportunities. In: Galanakis CM (ed) Sustainable food systems from agriculture to industry. Academic Press, Cambridge pp 401–419

  • Koch H, Röper H (1988) New industrial products from starch. Starch Stärke 40(4):121–131

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lewicka K, Siemion P, Kurcok P (2015) Chemical modifications of starch: microwave effect. Int J Polym Sci 2015:1–10

  • Lin CSK, Pfaltzgraf LA, Herrero-Davila L, Mubofu EB, Abderrahim S, Clark JH, Koutinas AA, Kopsahelis N, Stamatelatou K, Dickson F, Thankappan S (2013) Food waste as a valuable resource for the production of chemicals, materials and fuels. Current situation and global perspective. Energy. Environ Sci 6(2):426–464

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mouhoun-Chouaki S, Derridj A, Tazdaït D, Salah-Tazdaït R (2019) A study of the impact of municipal solid waste on some soil physicochemical properties: the case of the landfill of Ain-El-Hammam Municipality, Algeria. Appl Environ Soil Sci 2019:1–8

  • Neelam K, Vijay S, Lalit S (2012) Various techniques for the modification of starch and the applications of its derivatives. Int Res J Pharm 3(5):25–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Röper H (1996) Industrial products from starch: trends and developments. In: Proc. VIIth int. starch conf. June, pp 12–14

  • Rosenfeld PE, Feng L (2011) Risks of hazardous wastes. William Andrew, Elsevier, Boston, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Sadh PK, Duhan S, Duhan JS (2018) Agro-industrial wastes and their utilization using solid state fermentation: a review. Bioresour Bioprocess 5(1):1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saini A, Panesar PS, Bera MB (2019) Valorization of fruits and vegetables waste through green extraction of bioactive compounds and their nanoemulsions-based delivery system. Bioresour Bioprocess 6(1):26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salomone R, Saija G, Mondello G, Giannetto A, Fasulo S, Savastano D (2017) Environmental impact of food waste bioconversion by insects: application of life cycle assessment to process using Hermetia illucens. J Clean Prod 140:890–905

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santana ÁL, Meireles MAA (2014) New starches are the trend for industry applications: a review. Food Public Health 4(5):229–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tesfaye T, Gibril M, Sithole B, Ramjugernath D, Chavan R, Chunilall V, Gounden N (2018a) Valorisation of avocado seeds: extraction and characterisation of starch for textile applications. Clean Technol Environ Policy 20(9):2135–2154

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tesfaye T, Johakimu JK, Chavan RB, Sithole B, Ramjugernath D (2018b) Valorisation of mango seed via extraction of starch: preliminary techno-economic analysis. Clean Technol Environ Policy 20(1):81–94

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wadhwa M, Bakshi MPS (2013) Utilization of fruit and vegetable wastes as livestock feed and as substrates for generation of other value-added products. Rap Publ 4:1–67

    Google Scholar 

  • Ward M, Smith G, Tran Q (2016) This report contains assessments of commodity and trade issues made by USDA staff and not necessarily statements of official US government policy. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Washington, DC, p 11

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to acknowledge the Higher Education and TVET program Ethiopia-Phase 3, PE479-Higher Education, KFW project No. 51235 and BMZ No. 201166305 for financial support of this research.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



TT was involved in the conceptualization, writing—original draft preparation; MA was involved in the conceptualization, methodology and supply and demand analysis; EF was involved in the writing, experimental and technoeconomic analysis; MG was involved in supply and demand analysis, supervision and life cycle assessment; FK was involved in the supply and demand analysis, supervision and life cycle assessment; BS was involved in writing—reviewing and editing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tamrat Tesfaye.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tesfaye, T., Ayele, M., Ferede, E. et al. A techno-economic feasibility of a process for extraction of starch from waste avocado seeds. Clean Techn Environ Policy 23, 581–595 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Avocado seeds
  • Cleaner production
  • Economic feasibility
  • Starch