Skip to main content

Effect of manufacturing and installation location on environmental impact payback time of solar power


Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are a promising technology to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity production. Several locations in the USA are favorable for solar PV deployment due to having a high solar potential. This study evaluates the environmental impact payback time (PBTI) for installing multi-crystalline silicon PV systems in multiple US cities, Seattle, Miami, Los Angeles, Phoenix and Indianapolis, with varying electricity mixes and solar potential, using life cycle inventory data and the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemicals and other environmental impacts as the impact assessment method. China, USA and European manufacturing scenarios were analyzed to compare the effect of the electricity mix used during manufacturing on PBTI. The results show that the PBTI ranges between < 1 year and 3000 + years across all impact categories. A Chinese manufacturing scenario increased the PBTI in some impact categories (i.e., global warming) compared to the USA and Europe manufacturing, but had no effect for others. The PBTI is within the solar panel life span for the impact categories of global warming, acidification and fossil fuel depletion, but is longer than the lifespan for other impact categories (i.e., eutrophication and ozone depletion). According to the global warming PBTI, policies should incentivize solar panels in the following order: Phoenix, Indianapolis, Miami, Los Angeles, Seattle. This work provides guidance to policy makers and manufacturers on the PBTI when the manufacturing location, solar potential and electricity mix are known.

Graphic abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


Download references


This work was supported by the Sustainable LA-UCLA Grand Challenges program. The data presented in this work are those of the authors and have not been formally reviewed by the funders. The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers who helped improve the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andrea L. Hicks.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 81 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Grant, C.A., Hicks, A.L. Effect of manufacturing and installation location on environmental impact payback time of solar power. Clean Techn Environ Policy 22, 187–196 (2020).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Photovoltaics
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Environmental payback time
  • Environmental impact