Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 1061–1085 | Cite as

Optimal design of total integrated residential complexes involving water-energy-waste nexus

  • Jesús Manuel Núñez-López
  • Eusiel Rubio-Castro
  • Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi
  • José María Ponce-Ortega
Original Paper
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents a multi-objective optimization formulation for enhancing the sustainable development of a residential complex. The approach accounts for the water-energy-waste nexus of the complex and enables various pathways for system integration. For conserving the fresh water demands, the proposed model includes the synthesis of water networks while accounting for wastewater reclamation and recycle and rainwater harvesting. The proposed model also incorporates the optimal design of a residential cogeneration unit to satisfy the demands for electric power and hot water. An absorption refrigeration system is considered to utilize waste heat and provide the needed refrigeration. The emitted carbon dioxide is fed to an algae growth system, which is integrated with the use of reclaimed water. A solid-waste gasification system is considered to provide electric power and heat to the residential complex. The optimization approach accounts for all the interactions of the involved units and for the seasonal variabilities of the system. A case study for a residential complex of Mexico is solved.

Keywords

Energy integration Water integration Residential complex Optimization Residential cogeneration 

List of symbols

Variables

\(A^{{\mathrm{RW}}}\)

Rainwater collecting area in m2

\({\text{Cap}}^{\rm algae}\)

Capacity for the algae system in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\rm ARC}\)

Capacity for the absorption refrigeration cycle in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\rm boiler}\)

Capacity for the boiler in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{{\mathrm{FWSS}}}\)

Capacity for the fresh water storage tank in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\rm gasification}\)

Capacity for the gasifier in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\rm GW}\)

Capacity for the greywater treatment in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\rm ICE}\)

Capacity for the internal combustion engine in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\rm{NGT}}\)

Capacity for the natural gas treatment unit in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{{\mathrm{RWSS}}}\)

Capacity for the rainwater storage system in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\rm WW}\)

Capacity for the wastewater treatment unit in m3

\({\text{CapCost}}^{\rm algae}\)

Capital cost for the algae system in US$/year

\({\text{CapCost}}^{\rm ARC}\)

Capital cost for the absorption refrigeration cycle in US$/year

\({\text{CapCost}}^{\rm boiler}\)

Capital cost for the boiler in US$/year

\({\text{CapCost}}^{{\mathrm{FWSS}}}\)

Capital cost for the fresh water storage unit in US$/year

\({\text{CapCost}}^{\rm gasification}\)

Capital cost for the gasifier in US$/year

\({\text{CapCost}}^{\rm GW}\)

Capital cost for the greywater treatment unit in US$/year

\({\text{CapCost}}^{\rm ICE}\)

Capital cost for the internal combustion engine in US$/year

\({\text{CapCost}}^{\rm NGT}\)

Capital cost for natural gas treatment unit in US$/year

\({\text{CapCost}}^{{\mathrm{RWSS}}}\)

Capital cost for the rainwater storage system in US$/year

\({\text{CapCost}}^{\rm WW}\)

Capital cost for wastewater treatment unit in US$/year

\({\text{Cost}}^{{\mathrm{E}}}\)

Cost for the purchased electricity in US$/kWh

\({\text{Cost}}^{{\mathrm{FW}}}\)

Cost for the purchased fresh water in US$/m3

\({\text{Cost}}^{{\mathrm{NG}}}\)

Cost for the purchased natural gas in US$/kg

\({\text{Cost}}^{{\mathrm{ref}}}\)

Cost for the purchased refrigeration in US$/kWh

\(e_{t}^{\text{ICE-algae}}\)

Electricity send to the algae system from the ICE in kWh/h

\(e_{t}^{\rm ICE-GWT}\)

Electricity send to the greywater treatment unit from the ICE in kWh/h

\(e_{t}^{\text{ICE-residential}}\)

Electricity sent to the residential complex from the ICE in kWh/h

\(e_{t}^{\text{ICE-sale}}\)

Electricity sold produced by the ICE in kWh/h

\(e_{t}^{\text{ICE-WWT}}\)

Electricity sent to the wastewater treatment unit from the ICE in kWh/h

\(e_{t}^{{\mathrm{purchased}}}\)

Purchased electricity in kWh/h

\(e_{t}^{\text{purchased-algae}}\)

Purchased electricity needed in the algae system in kWh/h

\(e_{t}^{\text{ purchased-GWT}}\)

Purchased electricity needed in the greywater treatment unit in kWh/h

\(e_{t}^{\text{purchased-WWT}}\)

Purchased electricity needed in the wastewater treatment unit in kWh/h

\(E_{t}^{\rm algae}\)

Electricity needed for the algae system in kWh/h

\(E_{t}^{\rm GW}\)

Electricity needed for the greywater treatment unit in kWh/h

\(E_{t}^{\rm ICE}\)

Electricity generated by the internal combustion engine in kWh/h

\(E_{t}^{{\mathrm{residential}}}\)

Electricity required for the residential complex in kWh/h

\(E_{t}^{\rm WW}\)

Electricity needed in the wastewater treatment unit in kWh/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{FW-algae}}\)

Inlet fresh water to the algae system in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{FW-boiler}}\)

Inlet fresh water to boiler in m3/h

\(f_{f}^{\text{FW-garden}}\)

Needed fresh water to gardening in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{FW-ICE}}\)

Needed fresh water in the internal combustion engine in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{FW-residential}}\)

Inlet fresh water to the residential complex in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{NG-boiler-purchased}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas purchased for the boiler in kg/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{NG-gasification-boiler}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas from the gasification process to the boiler in kg/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{NG-gasification-ICE}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas from the gasification process to the ICE in kg/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{NG-gasification-purchased}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas purchased for the gasification process in kg/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{NG-gasification-sale}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas sold by the gasifier in kg/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{NG-gastreatment-boiler}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas sent to the boiler from the gas treatment unit in kg/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{NG-gastreatment-gasification}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas sent to the gasification from the gas treatment in kg/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{NG-gastreatment-ICE}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas to the ICE from the gas treatment in kg/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{ NG-purchased-ICE}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas purchased by the ICE in kg/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{reclaim-algae}}\)

Flowrate of reclaimed water sent to the algae system in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{reclaimed-drainage}}\)

Flowrate of reclaimed water sent to the drainage in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{reclaim-garden}}\)

Flowrate of reclaimed water sent to the garden in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{RW-algae}}\)

Flowrate of rainwater sent to the algae system in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{RW-boiler}}\)

Flowrate of rainwater sent to the boiler in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{RW-garden}}\)

Flowrate of rainwater sent to the garden in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\rm RW-ICE}\)

Flowrate of rainwater sent to the internal combustion engine in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{RW-residential}}\)

Flowrate of rainwater sent to the residential complex in m3/h

\(f_{t}^{\text{RW-sale}}\)

Flowrate of rainwater sold to an external company in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{CW-boiler}}\)

Inlet cold water to the boiler in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{CW-ICE}}\)

Inlet cold water to the internal combustion engine in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{CW-residential}}\)

Inlet cold water to the residential complex in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{{\mathrm{FW}}}\)

Flowrate of total fresh water in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{GW-residential}}\)

Flowrate of inlet water to the greywater treatment unit from the residential complex in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{Inlet-GW}}\)

Total inlet water to the greywater treatment unit in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{NG-boiler}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas produced by the boiler in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{NG-gasification}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas produced by the gasifier in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{NG-GWT}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas produced by the greywater treatment unit in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{NG-ICE}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas required for the ICE to generate the electricity in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{NGT-Inlet}}\)

Total inlet flowrate to the natural gas treatment unit in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{NG-needed-gasification}}\)

Flowrate of total natural gas needed for the gasification process in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{ NG-Outlet}}\)

Total outlet flowrate of the natural gas treatment unit in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{NG-WW}}\)

Inlet flowrate of gases to the natural gas treatment unit from the wastewater treatment unit in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{NGT-Inlet}}\)

Total natural gas inlet to the gas treatment unit in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{reclaimed-GW}}\)

Flowrate of reclaimed water to the greywater treatment unit in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{{\mathrm{RW}}}\)

Total flowrate of rainwater in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{{\mathrm{solidwaste}}}\)

Solid waste generated in the residential complex in kg/h

\(F_{t}^{{\mathrm{SRW}}}\)

Stored water in the rainwater storage system in the period t in m3/h

\(F_{t-1}^{{\mathrm{SRW}}}\)

Stored water in the rainwater storage system in the period t-1 in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{treated-WW}}\)

Flowrate of wastewater treated in the unit in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{W-garden}}\)

Flowrate of water from the garden sent to the wastewater treatment in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{W-inlet-algae}}\)

Water needed for the algae system in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\rm WW}\)

Total inlet flowrate to the wastewater in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{WW-algae}}\)

Flowrate of water from the algae system to the wastewater in m3/h

\(F_{t}^{\text{WW-Drainage}}\)

Flowrate of the wastewater sent to the drainage in m3/h

\(Fg_{t}^{\text{ boiler-algae}}\)

Flue gases sent to the algae system from the boiler in kg/h

\(Fg_{t}^{\text{ boiler-discharge}}\)

Flue gases sent to the discharge from the boiler in kg/h

\(Fg_{t}^{\text{ gasification-algae}}\)

Flowrate of CO2 sent to the algae system from the gasification system in kg/h

\(Fg^{\text{ICE-algae}}\)

Flue gases sent to the algae system from the ICE in kg/h

\(Fg^{\text{ICE-discharge}}\)

Flue gases sent to the discharge from the ICE in kg/h

\(g_{t}^{\text{ gasification-algae}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas sent from the gasification process to the algae system in kg/h

\(g_{t}^{\text{gasification-discharge}}\)

Flowrate of natural gas sent from the gasification to the discharge in kg/h

\(G_{t}^{\rm algae}\)

CO2 captured by the algae system in kg/h

\(G_{t}^{\rm boiler}\)

Flowrate of flue gases produced by the boiler in kg/h

\(G_{t}^{\rm gasification}\)

Flowrate of flue gases produced by the gasification process in kg/h

\(G_{t}^{\rm ICE}\)

Flue gases generated by the cogeneration system in kg/h

\(h_{t}^{\text{boiler-residential}}\)\(h_{t}^{\text{boiler-ARC}}\)

Flowrate of hot water sent from the boiler to the ARC in m3/h

Flowrate of hot water sent from the boiler to the residential complex in m3/h

\(h_{t}^{\text{boiler-sale}}\)

Flowrate of hot water sold by the boiler in m3/h

\(h_{t}^{\rm ICE-ARC}\)

Flowrate of hot water sent from the ICE to the ARC in m3/h

\(h_{t}^{\text{ICE-residential}}\)

Flowrate of hot water sent from the ICE to the residential complex in m3/h

\(h_{t}^{\text{ICE-sale}}\)

Flowrate of hot water sold by the ICE in m3/h

\(h_{t}^{\text{purchase-ARC}}\)

Flowrate of hot water purchased for the ARC in m3/h

\(H_{t}^{\text{HW-ARC}}\)

Flowrate of hot water needed for the ARC in m3/h

\(H_{t}^{\text{HW-boiler}}\)

Flowrate of hot water produced by the boiler in m3/h

\(H_{t}^{\rm ICE}\)

Flowrate of hot water generated by the ICE in m3/h

\(r_{t}^{\text{ARC-residential}}\)

Refrigeration sent to the residential complex to satisfy its demands in kWh/h

\(r_{t}^{\text{ARC-sale}}\)

Refrigeration sold by the ARC to an external client in kWh/h

\(r_{t}^{\text{purchased-residential}}\)

Refrigeration purchased for the residential complex in kWh/h

\(R_{t}^{\rm ARC}\)

Total refrigeration generated by the ARC in kWh/h

\(R_{t}^{{\mathrm{residential}}}\)

Refrigeration required for the residential complex in kWh/h

\({\text{Sale}}^{{\mathrm{biofuel}}}\)

Biofuel sold in kg/h

\({\text{Sale}}^{{\mathrm{CW}}}\)

Cold water sale in m3/h

\({\text{Sale}}^{{\mathrm{E}}}\)

Electricity sold in kWh/h

\({\text{Sale}}^{{\mathrm{HW}}}\)

Hot water sold in m3/h

\({\text{Sale}}^{{\mathrm{NG}}}\)

Natural gas sold in kg/h

\({\text{Sale}}^{{\mathrm{R}}}\)

Refrigeration sold in kWh/h

\({\text{ TAC }}\)

Total annual cost in US$/year

\({\text{TotCapCost}}\)

Total capital cost in US$/year

\({\text{ TotOpCost}}\)

Total operating cost in US$/year

\({\text{TotSales}}\)

Total sales in US$/year

Parameters

\(\alpha^{\text{algae-E}}\)

Electricity conversion factor for the algae system

\(\alpha^{\text{fluegases-gasification}}\)

Flue gases conversion factor for the gasification process

\(\alpha^{\rm gasification}\)

Gasification conversion factor

\(\alpha^{\text{GW-residential}}\)

Factor for the generated greywater in the residential complex

\(\alpha^{\text{ICE-CW}}\)

Conversion factor for cold water in the ICE

\(\alpha^{\text{ICE-E}}\)

Electricity conversion factor for the ICE

\(\alpha^{\text{NG-GWT}}\)

Conversion factor for natural gas in the greywater treatment unit

\(\alpha^{\text{NG-needed-gasification}}\)

Conversion factor for the natural gas needed in the gasifier

\(\alpha^{\text{NG-NGT}}\)

Natural gas factor for the natural gas treatment unit

\(\alpha^{\text{NG-WW}}\)

Conversion factor for the natural gas in the wastewater unit

\(\alpha^{\text{reclaimed-GW}}\)

Conversion factor for reclaimed water in the greywater unit

\(\alpha^{\text{treating-WW}}\)

Factor for treating water in the wastewater treatment unit

\(\alpha^{\text{WW-algae}}\)

Conversion factor for wastewater in the algae system

\(\alpha^{\text{WW-residential}}\)

Conversion factor for produced wastewater in the residential complex

\(\beta^{\rm boiler}\)

Conversion factor for the boiler

\(\beta^{\text{ICE-HW}}\)

Conversion factor for hot water in the ICE

\(\beta^{\text{R-ARC}}\)

Factor for produced refrigeration in the ARC

\(\gamma^{\rm ICE-g}\)

Conversion factor for flue gases in the ICE

\({\text{A}}^{\text{RW-MAX}}\)

Maximum available collecting area in m2

\({\text{Cap}}^{\text{algae-MAX}}\)

Maximum capacity for the algae system in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\text{ARC-MAX}}\)

Maximum capacity for the absorption refrigeration cycle in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\text{boiler-MAX}}\)

Maximum capacity for the boiler in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\text{FWSS-MAX}}\)

Maximum capacity for the fresh water storage tank in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\text{gasification-MAX}}\)

Maximum capacity for the gasifier in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\text{GW-MAX}}\)

Maximum capacity for the greywater treatment in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\text{ICE-MAX}}\)

Maximum capacity for the internal combustion engine in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\text{NGT-MAX}}\)

Maximum capacity for the natural gas treatment unit in m3

\({\text{Cap}}^{\text{WW-MAX}}\)

Maximum capacity for the wastewater treatment unit in m3

\({\text{H}}_{\text{t}}^{\text{residential}}\)

Total inlet hot water to the residential complex in m3/h

\({\text{Precip}}_{t}\)

Precipitation in m3/h

\({\text{UC}}^{\text{E}}\)

Unit cost for electricity in US$/kWh

\({\text{UC}}^{\text{FW}}\)

Unit cost for fresh water in US$/m3

\({\text{UC}}^{\text{NG}}\)

Unit cost for natural gas in US$/kg

\({\text{UC}}^{\text{ref}}\)

Unit cost for refrigeration in US$/kWh

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{algae}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the algae system in US$

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{ARC}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the absorption refrigeration cycle in US$

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{boiler}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the boiler in US$

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{\rm FWSS}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the fresh water storage system in US$

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{gasification}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the gasifier in US$

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{GW}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the greywater treatment unit in US$

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{ICE}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the internal combustion engine in US$

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{NGT}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the natural gas treatment in US$

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{\rm RW}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the rainwater collecting system in US$

\({\text{UFC}}^{\text{WW}}\)

Unit fixed cost for the wastewater treatment unit in US$

\({\text{US}}^{\text{CW}}\)

Unit price sale for cold water in US$/m3

\({\text{US}}^{\text{e}}\)

Unit price sale for electricity in US$/kWh

\({\text{US}}^{\text{HW}}\)

Unit price sale for hot water in US$/m3

\({\text{US}}^{\text{NG}}\)

Unit price sale for natural gas in US$/kg

\({\text{US}}^{\text{R}}\)

Unit price sale for refrigeration in US$/kWh

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{algae}}\)

Unit variable cost for the algae system in US$

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{ARC}}\)

Unit variable cost for the ARC in US$

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{boiler}}\)

Unit variable cost for the boiler in US$

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{\rm FWSS}}\)

Unit variable cost for the fresh water storage system in US$

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{gasification}}\)

Unit variable cost for the gasifier in US$

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{GW}}\)

Unit variable cost for the greywater treatment unit in US$

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{ICE}}\)

Unit variable cost for the ICE in US$

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{NGT}}\)

Unit variable cost for the natural gas treatment unit in US$

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{\rm RW}}\)

Unit variable cost for the rainwater collecting system in US$

\({\text{UVC}}^{\text{WW}}\)

Unit variable cost for the wastewater treatment unit in US$

Binary variables

\(y^{\rm algae}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the algae system

\(y^{\rm ARC}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the ARC

\(y^{\rm boiler}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the boiler

\(y^{{\mathrm{FWSS}}}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the fresh water storage system

\(y^{\rm gasification}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the gasifier

\(y^{\rm GW}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the greywater treatment unit

\(y^{\rm ICE}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the ICE

\(y^{\rm NGT}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the natural gas treatment unit

\(y^{{\mathrm{RW}}}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the rainwater collecting system

\(y^{\rm WW}\)

Binary variable for the existence of the wastewater treatment unit

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesús Manuel Núñez-López
    • 1
  • Eusiel Rubio-Castro
    • 2
  • Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi
    • 3
    • 4
  • José María Ponce-Ortega
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentUniversidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, MichoacánMoreliaMexico
  2. 2.Chemical and Biological Sciences DepartmentUniversidad Autónoma de SinaloaCuliacánMexico
  3. 3.Chemical Engineering DepartmentTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  4. 4.Chemical and Materials Engineering DepartmentKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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