Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 1105–1112 | Cite as

Zn–Al–CO3 layered double hydroxides prepared from a waste of hot-dip galvanizing process

  • Laura Cocheci
  • Lavinia Lupa
  • Marius Gheju
  • Alin Golban
  • Radu Lazău
  • Rodica Pode
Original Paper


Hot-dip galvanizing process is used worldwide to protect the steel or iron pieces from corrosion. This process is a large generator of waste, considered one of the so-called dirty industries. One of the important wastes, in terms of quantity, is zinc ash that contains a mixture of metallic zinc and zinc oxide with a total content of zinc between 70 and 90%. The aim of this study is the preparation and characterization of a series of Zn R –Al–CO3 (R = 2–4) layered double hydroxides (LDH) by using as zinc precursor the zinc chloride obtained after hydrochloric acid leaching of fine-grained zinc ash. Results presented herein clearly demonstrated that characteristics of the synthesized samples are close to those of similar materials synthesized starting from analytical grade reagents. At the same time, it was observed that impurities existent in the zinc chloride solution prepared by zinc ash leaching (Pb, Fe, Ca), are found at traces in the synthesized LDH materials; therefore, they have no significant influence on the obtained LDH structure and properties. By this approach, several important benefits may be simultaneously achieved: (1) preventing the pollution associated with hot-dip galvanizing process wastes, (2) obtaining of valuable products with minimized costs, keeping in mind that LDH have multiple utilizations at industrial scale, (3) saving energy and material costs, and (4) increase of product competitiveness with respect to the circular economy.


Layered double hydroxides Wastes recycling Zinc ash Acid leaching 



This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS–UEFISCDI, Project Number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-0771. L. C. wish to thank Professor C. Pacurariu (Politehnica University of Timisoara) for recording the thermoanalytic curves.


  1. Barik G, Padhan E, Dash B, Sarangi K, Subbaiah T (2014) Preparation of nickel aluminium double hydroxide from waste solution of nickel. Mater Eng 69:107–112Google Scholar
  2. Cao Z, Yue Y, Zhong H, Qiu P, Chen P, Wen X, Wang S (2017) The cationic dye removal by novel Si–Zn composites prepared from zinc ash. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 71:464–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carja C, Nakamura R, Aida T, Niiyama H (2001) Textural properties of layered double hydroxides: effect of magnesium substitution by copper or iron. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 47:275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cavani F, Trifiro F, Vaccari A (1991) Hydrotalcite-type anionic clays: preparation, properties and applications. Catal Today 11:173–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dvořák P, Jandová J (2005) Hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc from hot dip galvanizing ash. Hydrometallurgy 77:29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Forano C, Costantino U, Prevot V, Taviot Gueho C (2013) Layered double hydroxides (LDH). In: Bergaya F, Lagaly G (eds) Handbook of clay science, vol 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 745–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frost RL, Spratt HJ, Palmer SJ (2009) Infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic study of synthetic hydrotalcites with variable divalent/trivalent cationic ratios. Spectrochim Acta A 72:984–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Galindo R, López-Delgado A, Padilla I, Yates M (2014) Hydrotalcite-like compounds: a way to recover a hazardous waste in the aluminium tertiary industry. Appl Clay Sci 95:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gostu S, Mishra D, Sahu KK, Agrawal A (2014) Precipitation and characterization of zinc borates from hydrometallurgical processing of zinc ash. Mater Lett 134:198–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. He J, Wei M, Li B, Kang Y, Evans DG, Duan X (2006) Preparation of layered double hydroxides. In: Duan X, Evans DG (eds) Layered double hydroxides. Springer, Berlin, pp 89–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kanezaki E (2004) Preparation of layered double hydroxides. In: Wypych F, Satyanarayana KG (eds) Clay surfaces. Fundamentals and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 345–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kloprogge JT, Wharton D, Hickey L, Frost RL (2002) Infrared and Raman study of interlayer anions CO3 2−, NO3 , SO4 2− and ClO4 in Mg/Al-hydrotalcite. Am Miner 87:623–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kooli F, Depege C, Ennaqadi A, de Roy A, Besse JP (1997) Rehydration of Zn–Al layered double hydroxides. Clays Clay Miner 45:92–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li S, Wang F, Jing X, Wang J, Saba J, Liu Q, Ge L, Song D, Zhang M (2012) Synthesis of layered double hydroxides from eggshells. Mater Chem Phys 132:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lupa L, Negrea P, Iovi A, Ciopec M, Mosoarca G (2006) Zinc recover from zinc ash by extraction with clorhidric acid solutions. Chem Bull 51:71–74Google Scholar
  16. Miyata S (1975) The synthesis of hydrotalcite-like compounds and their structures and physico-chemical properties—I: the systems Mg2+–Al3+–NO3 , Mg2+–Al3+–Cl, Mg2+–Al3+–ClO4 , Ni2+–Al3+–Cl and Zn2+–Al3+–Cl. Clays Clay Miner 23:369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Murayama N, Maekawa I, Ushiro H, Miyoshi T, Shibata J, Valix M (2012) Synthesis of various layered double hydroxides using aluminum dross generated in aluminum recycling process. Int J Miner Process 110–111:46–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Prikhod’ko RV, Sychev MV, Astrelin IM, Erdmann K, Mangel’ A, Van Santen RA (2001) Synthesis and structural transformations of hydrotalcite-like materials Mg3Al and Zn3Al. Russ J Appl Chem 74:1573–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Radha AV, Kamath PV (2003) Aging of trivalent metal hydroxide/oxide gels in divalent metal salt solutions: mechanism of formation of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Bull Mater Sci 26:661–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rives V, Ulibarri MA (1999) Layered double hydroxides (LDH) intercalated with metal coordination compounds and oxometalates. Coord Chem Rev 181:61–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rojas Delgado R, De Pauli CP, Barriga Carrasco C, Avena MJ (2008) Influence of MII/MIII ratio in surface-charging behavior of Zn–Al layered double hydroxides. Appl Clay Sci 40:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Seftel EM, Popovici E, Mertens M, De Witte K, Van Tendeloo G, Cool P, Vansant EF (2008) Zn–Al layered double hydroxides: synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic application. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 113:296–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shannon RD (1976) Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides. Acta Crystallogr A 32:751–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Trpčevská J, Hoľková B, Briančin Korálová K, Pirošková J (2015) The pyrometallurgical recovery of zinc from the coarse-grained fraction of zinc ash by centrifugal force. Int J Miner Process 143:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vlad M, Radu T, Mitoseru O, Potecasu F (2011) Environment quality improvement at hot-dip galvanisation and the recycling of zinc by-products. J Environ Prot Ecol 12:1415–1423Google Scholar
  26. Volli V, Purkait MK (2016) Preparation and characterization of hydrotalcite-like materials from flyash for transesterification. Clean Technol Environ Policy 18:529–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vourlias G, Pistofidis N, Pavlidou E, Stergioudis G, Polychroniadis EK (2007) Study of the structure of hot-dip galvanizing byproducts. J Optoelectron Adv Mater 9:2937–2942Google Scholar
  28. Wang Q, O’Hare D (2012) Recent advances in the synthesis and application of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets. Chem Rev 112:4124–4155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang C, Chen Y, Shang X, Li H, Guo Z (2016) Facile synthesis of Ca/Mg/Al/Fe layered double hydroxides using steelmaking slag as raw material. Mater Lett 173:115–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang J, Li Y, Zhou J, Chen D, Qian G (2012) Chromium (VI) and zinc (II) waste water co-treatment by forming layered double hydroxides: mechanism discussion via two different processes and application in real plating water. J Hazard Mater 205–206:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental EngineeringPolitehnica University of TimisoaraTimisoaraRomania

Personalised recommendations