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A GIS-based tool to estimate carbon stock related to changes in land use due to tourism in Phuket Island, Thailand


According to the National Statistical Office (NSO), Phuket receives a large and increasing number of visitors each year, generating revenue and assisting in the development of both the local and the national economies. The impact of the increase in tourist numbers visiting Phuket is not only economic, but also social and environmental. The most noticeable changes in urban areas are the extreme levels of traffic congestion, increases in living expenses and a loss of green areas. This rapid and largely haphazard development is causing concern among the citizens of Phuket as they fear irreversible damages that could ruin the tourism industry in the long term. This paper presents a study conducted using geographic information system (GIS) as a tool to determine changes in land use and the carbon stored in soil from 2000 to 2013. On the basis of this information, the trend of the tourism carrying capacity, green space and global warming potential from the release of CO2 from the soil surface can be analysed to assess the environmental status of the tourism industry in Phuket. The data show a negative trend requiring the enactment and implementation of stricter legislation for the management of tourism and the environment in Phuket.

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Fig. 5



Other agricultural land

AL :

Land area, ha


Paddy fields


Other forest

FI :

Stock change factor for the input of organic matter, dimensionless


Stock change factor for land-use systems, dimensionless


Stock change factor for the management regime, dimensionless


Evergreen forest


Greenhouse gas


Geographic information system


Land use/land cover


Land use/land cover of Phuket for the year 2000


Land use/land cover of Phuket for the year 2009


Land use/land cover of Phuket for the year 2013


Miscellaneous land use


Area not classified as to Phuket’s land use


National statistical office


Soil organic carbon stock, t of carbon


Reference carbon stock, t of carbon ha−1


Other urban and built-up land


Universal transverse mercator




Golf courses


Other water bodies


World geodetic system 1984


Built-up reservoir


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The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding of this work by the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), under the project, ‘An analysis of green gross provincial product (GPP) of Phuket, a tourist city’. Special thanks go to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Raymond James Ritchie for editing the English language of the manuscript. We also want to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions which were very helpful in improving the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Kritana Prueksakorn.

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Prueksakorn, K., Gonzalez, J.C., Keson, J. et al. A GIS-based tool to estimate carbon stock related to changes in land use due to tourism in Phuket Island, Thailand. Clean Techn Environ Policy 20, 561–571 (2018).

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  • Geographic information system
  • Land-use change
  • Phuket Island
  • Soil organic carbon stocks
  • Tourism